Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2019 Archive

1 Title: RETURN TO CAPITAL AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT A CROSS COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE.pdf
Author: JOHN VAHALY, NAN-TING CHOU AND ALEXEI IZYUMOV
Abstract: Using newly available data, the paper estimates aggregate macroeconomic rates of return (ROR) for 109 countries divided into highly developed (HDC), less developed (LDC), and transition economy (TEC) groups. We then analyze the connection between the ROR and cross-country capital flows as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI). For the period of 1994-2014, we find statistically significant links between all measures of ROR and inflows of FDI associated with the prevalence of “downhill” capital flows across the world.  Keywords: Return on capital, foreign direct investment, capital mobility View
2 Title: EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG GENDER GENERATION LANGUAGE AND ACCULTURATION LEVELS ON LATINO LEADERS IN THE U.S..pdf
Author: KARINA GIL, Ph.D., MSW
Abstract: The Latino community is the fastest growing minority group in the United States and as such, its members are increasingly moving into leadership positions. Unfortunately, very limited research has been done to learn more about Latino leaders and acculturation. The present research attempted to contribute to the body of knowledge and bring to light the uniqueness of Latino leaders and acculturation. The findings indicate that this is not a very different group within the Latino community, but more research is needed. A key factor for level of acculturation was found in the study. Overall, the study sample was acculturated and being bilingual was the driving force behind it. This may, in part, explain the group’s success in achieving high level positions in their organizations. Aspiring Latino leaders must strive to be fully bilingual because it provides them with means to navigate different cultures within the Latino and non-Latino communities, and with a competitive advantage. Interestingly, the research group was less acculturated on the Ethnic Social Relations factor which looks at the ethnicity of the people they socialize with. Aspiring Latino leaders are encouraged to expand their social and professional networks to include other diverse groups and act as a sort of ambassador. This in turn, will provide them with increased cultural competence and wider opportunities for themselves and for their community. The results of this study can have major implications when considering the Latino leadership experience as it relates to language, gender and acculturation. Aside from personal responsibilities, organizations should consider providing more opportunities for multi-ethnic social gatherings and promote expanding relationships outside of personal groups. Additionally, when it comes to cross-cultural communication, organization will do well by acknowledging, respecting and promoting bilingualism not only with establish Latino leaders but also with potential leaders. View
3 Title: FISCAL POLICY AND MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA (1980 2017).pdf
Author: IGWEMMA, A. A., NAAKUU, KPOBARI JOSEPH AND IGBARA NEEKA
Abstract: This research work examined fiscal policy and macroeconomic performance in Nigeria from 1980 – 2017. Secondary data were used for the study obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin 2017 Edition and Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) 2017 Publications. The data were subjected to ordinary least square multiple regression analysis. In course of this work, three hypotheses were posed in null form. First, Fiscal policies have no significant relationship on inflation. Secondly, fiscal policies have no significant effect on unemployment. Thirdly, Fiscal policies have no significant relationship on economic growth. The results of the analysis confirmed that fiscal policies have significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria; therefore the null hypothesis which states that fiscal policies have no significant relationship on economic growth were rejected. The results as well confirmed that Fiscal policies have no significant impact on inflation and unemployment in Nigeria. Therefore, the respective null hypotheses were accepted. Based on the above findings, the following recommendations are put forward: Fiscal policy should be given priority attention especially capital and recurrent expenditures of the government. Government expenditures should place more emphasis on the development of basic infrastructure. There is need for an improvement in government capital expenditure on health, education and economic services. Government economic policies should focus on diversification of the economy to enhance the performance of the non-oil sector, so as to create more jobs. And finally government should fight the problem of corruption because without a reduction of the level of corruption in the country, fiscal policy components will not translate to the required level of economic growth in Nigeria. View
4 Title: THE CREATIVE CORPORATION SPONTANEOUS ORDER IN THE ENTERPRISE.pdf
Author: THOMAS N. DUENING, PhD.
Abstract: This paper is written in response to increasing calls around the world for large enterprises to become more creative in their core business operations. However, most of the research into enterprise creativity is based on the assumption that creativity (or „innovation‟) can be managed like any other function. This paper builds on the work of F.A. Hayek to argue instead that creativity is not an operational function, but rather an aspirational outcome. To enhance overall enterprise creativity managers need to create internal environments that enable what Hayek refers to as „spontaneous order‟ to arise. The greatest engine of creativity ever devised by humans, Western capitalist economic structure, is Hayek‟s prime example of how outcomes are often the result of human action, but not necessarily of human design. The article concludes with action steps managers can take to enhance their enterprise creativity. View
5 Title: FOCUSING ON THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IN DISCUSSION OF THE FCPA.pdf
Author: SCOTT A. YETMAR, PhD.
Abstract: The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 is a significant piece of American legislature that, especially in recent years, has been the subject of many heated debates in business discussions. As of February 23, 2017, this law has brought Department of Justice (DOJ) or Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) actions in 497 cases, collected $9,981,825,430 in total monetary sanctions imposed in all FCPA-related cases, and has ties to $4,279,568,195 in bribery payments (Stanford Law School FCPA Clearinghouse, 2017).Recent years, relevant to the era of transformation in the regulatory and legal framework within the macro-environment, the demand for preventative and proprietary measures to implement effective internal controls for business enterprises has significantly increased. The FCPA is one of the internationally focused regulations in which is of high concern and risk for companies to comply with as indicative by the set forth standards and penalties if failure to comply. The FCPA can be analyzed in major core areas; penalties, international and domestic whistle blower provisions, and the socioeconomic status of countries combined with ethical development. Such three major discussion areas play a substantial role in determining the overall past history, current state, and future effectiveness of the FCPA. The FCPA has proven effective over the years, but in order for it to remain relevant and at the forefront of anti-corruption and fair reporting, it must be updated to include increased standards for internal controls and software monitoring systems for large multinationals. The past successes of the FCPA, the unique role it plays as the world’s first and foremost anti-corruption legislation, and the importance of the anti-corruption movement to human advancement in terms of improving the reliability of business financials; all contribute to the need for increased enforcement and continued modernization of the FCPA on the global front. View
6 Title: IMPACT OF INVESTMENT CLIMATE ON TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: AJAGBE FRIDAY ADEMOLA
Abstract:  In spite of the relevance of industries in Nigerian economy and the tendency for the growth given increasing agricultural productivity in the nation, specific attention has not been given to its productivity as observed in some developing nations. Hence, this study examined impact of investment climate factors on total factor productivity (TFP) of medium scale industries in Nigeria. The firm - level data (Investment Climate Surveys) collected by World Bank in Nigeria between 2009 and 2010 was used. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Descriptive statistics involves use of tables, frequency distribution and percentages. While inferential statistics used include regression with the use of STATA 11.0. The regression results revealed that variables with negative signs indicate that the chances of investment climate factors on TFP decrease as the variables factors value increases. While the positive signs indicate that the chances of investment climate factors on TFP increase as the variables value increases. It is recommended that government at all levels should create investment climate factors that will create with it an investment opportunities and distribution of resources to the most profitable areas which eventually leads to increase productivity. Considerable attention should be given to how to increase agricultural productivity in the country since economic performance of industries depends basically on the productivity of the sector. A policy that will ensure a good political environment should be put to allow firms to undertake investments to expand their business and acquire the latest technology for nation as a whole. Keywords: Investment Climate, Total Factor Productivity, Industries, Nigeria. View
7 Title: IMPACT OF CAPITAL MARKET ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: ADEWOYIN, AZEEZ OLAKUNLE, OSUNWOLE, OLATUNJI OLUDAYO AND ADEDEJI, LATEEF OLABISI
Abstract: This study examined the impact of capital market on the economic growth in Nigeria from 1988 to 2018 based on the importance of the capital market as an efficient channel of financial intermediation in developed and developing economies. The study adopted ex post facto research design due to its reliance on existing secondary data. Secondary data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and Security and Exchange Commission (NSE) Statistical Bulletin, Annual Accounts and Reports and Factbooks. Data analysis was done through multiple regression of the dependent variable: gross domestic product (GDP) and the independent variables; total new issue (TNI), market capitalization (MCAP), value of transactions (VTR), and total listing (TLS) on the NSE. The study revealed a gradual but impressive improvement in total new issue within the period, while market capitalization and total new issue were positively correlated. There was bi-directional impact of the variables on GDP because TNI and VTR were negatively correlated, while MCAP and TLS were positively correlated. All the variables combined impacted positively on economic growth. The study recommends that capital market must be made more attractive to corporate bodies within and outside the country to get listed on the Exchange; while governments and investors should also be enticed toward using the platform to raise long-term funds for development purposes for economy transformations and realization of Vision 20:2020. Keywords: Capital Market, Economic Growth, Gross Domestic Product, Market Capitalization, Developing Economies View
8 Title: IS THE INFORMALISATION OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A SOLUTION TO GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT A GENDER BASED APPROACH IN CAMEROON.pdf
Author: ETGARD MANGA ENGAMA
Abstract: The structuring of the labour market based on the formal/informal duality is becoming a major characteristic of developing countries, especially Cameroon. Demographic pressure leads to an increase in the number of graduates, which contrasts with the decline in the demand for labour in the formal sector and the growth of the informal sector may suggest that this sector is beneficial for graduates. This study shows, in the sight of the insecure nature of jobs and the low wages of the workers, that the informal sector serves only as means of survival of the individuals who engage into it and that women are victims of wage discrimination in this sector. Keywords: Informalisation, unemployment, certificate, wages, gender   View
9 Title: RIVALRY OF THE ELITES IN ETHNO RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT ARISING FROM TERRITORIAL SPLIT OF MAMASA.pdf
Author: MOHAMAD SUBHAN
Abstract: There has been an escalating trend in social conflicts since regional autonomy came into effect. “Pemekaran daerah” which literally means territorial split or administrative fragmentation whereby new provinces and districts are created by dividing existing ones and which ironically strengthens the sense of identity based on race, ethnic group, religion, and other communal identity is one that triggers such conflicts. This study examines and discusses the rivalry of the elites in the ethno-religious conflicts that erupted during the process of territorial split of Mamasa district of West Sulawesi, Indonesia, in 2002 as a major part of regional autonomy. Mamasa, which was once part of the “mother” district of Polmas, was established into an autonomous district. Not only was the district divided but people in this region also had differing opinion on the idea of territorial split. Supporters of the administrative fragmentation were dubbed “pro” while opponents were called” kontra”. This research uses qualitative method. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, field observations, and secondary data. Studies reveal that autonomy is the potential cause of conflicts because it allows for competition among the contending elites who fight for political positions, economic resources, and other aspects of power. Unlike previous literature studies that put an emphasis on political conflicts and ethnic conflicts, this research focuses on ethno-religious conflicts involving two contending ethnic groups practicing two different religions: the Mandar who are predominantly Muslims and the Toraja who are Christians. The territorial split has indeed changed the socio-political constellation in the region. The Mandar who was once the dominant ethnic group is now a minority and the Toraja have now become the dominant ethnic group in the newly-established district. Keywords: autonomy, territorial split, conflict, elites, ethno-religious, identity politics View
10 Title: AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF TAKAFUL IN MALAYSIA A SURVEY OF MALAYSIAN CONSUMERS.pdf
Author: RUSNI HASSAN AND SYED AHMED SALMAN
Abstract: Insurance, nowadays, is no longer a luxury rather a necessity. Government regulations and employment are two very important factors that contribute to the huge overall growth of the insurance industry because they force general public to buy it. The concept behind conventional insurance is contrary to the principles of Islam and socio-ethical perspective. The purpose of Shari’ah is to create and maintain a harmonious social environment by moulding our conducts in all aspects of our ritual and daily life. Takaful industry remains to be relevant even after three decades of its introduction due to the continuous demands from the multiracial and multi-ethnic participants from various backgrounds. The said industry celebrates the contributions of their stakeholders, namely the Takaful operators, Shari’ah advisors and the participants or customers. Additional credit for the progressive development of Takaful industry goes to the consistent guidelines from the regulators. However, one factor that hinders further development of Takaful industry is the lack of awareness of its presence and purpose in Malaysian market. Therefore, this paper was designed to examine the knowledge and awareness of Takaful among Malaysian consumers in Malaysia by collecting primary data through survey questionnaires. Out of the 600 questionnaires that were sent to consumers in greater Malaysia i.e. Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, we received 503 questionnaires. Random selection was used to select the sample from the known population. The findings show that out of the 503 respondents, 124 have no knowledge of Takaful and 45% are not aware that Takaful policy holders share risks mutually. Also, 33.2, %, 38.8% and 37.2% do not know that Takaful is free from gambling, uncertainty, and interest.70.2% respondents, however, think that Takaful products comply with Shari’ah. Keywords: Takaful, Knowledge, Awareness, Consumers and Malaysia View

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