Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2017 Archive

1 Title: MICROFINANCE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT EXAMINATION OF WOMEN AND FAMILY HEALTH EDUCATION.pdf
Author: HERCULES MORISON AND GARVEY J. BARRY
Abstract: This paper is a systematic review of the peer - reviewed research papers and project reports in English language on how rural women,  children  and  family’s  health  can  be  improved  through  integrating  income  generation  and  health education & promotion activities. Generally, integrated microfinance, health education and promotion activities has resulted in significant reduction of intimate-partner violence, reduction in HIV/AIDS risk, promotion of mental health and improved women and family health. The findings may guide the process of designing and planning of integrated programs for sustainable women’s income and family health especially in rural areas. Keywords: microfinance, women, income, empowerment, gender, health View
2 Title: INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC MASTERPLAN CARBON EMISSION POLICY IN USA.pdf
Author: MANDY PATERSON
Abstract: For the first time in the scientific literature, this research establishes empirical evidence for the existence of a causal relationship among fossil fuel-based carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States (US), her gross domestic product (GDP) and world crude price. Estimated long-run income elasticity of CO2 emissions is as high as 3.2% in  the US. A strong  bi-directional long-run  causality is found  between  CO2 emissions  and GDP. Short-run causality runs from crude price to CO2 emissions to GDP. Monte Carlo stochastic simulations of the model developed reveal even a small increase in the reference real GDP growth rate causes considerable increase in  the  future  CO2   emissions  in  the  US.  Results  of  this  study  therefore  suggest  urgent  policy  actions  are imperative in the US to decouple the strong causal relationship existing between her CO2  emissions and GDP, and to ensure sustainable economic development in the US. Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions, Cointegration, Crude oil price, Granger causality, GDP, United States, Monte Carlo stochastic simulations. View
3 Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY ON A LEADER’S COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES (A STUDY OF SELECTED UNIVERSITIES FROM...........pdf
Author: PETERSON C. NWOKORIE, PhD.
Abstract: Management communication competence is a bilateral and harmonious relationship between management and labor for increased productivity in any organization. This study aims at examining the contributions made by a leader’s Emotional intelligence to competence in communication in other to influence his subordinate to perform better.  But while reviewing communication related literature, the researcher came across another construct “Cognitive complexity”  which  some authorities in communication claim plays a major role in enhancing the ability of someone to communicate effectively and efficiently too.  The discovery therefore inspired the researcher to conduct a sort of comparative study of the two constructs, to see if the two constructs are the same with different names and or identify their individual or collective impact on  a leaders communication competence. To do this, a sample of 331 officers occupying managerial position from 5 randomly selected universities within the five states in the South Eastern Nigeria was studied. Findings from the study show that both Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive complexity have positive effects on leader’s communication competence, and that emotional intelligence is quite a different construct from cognitive complexity. They rather reinforces each other to produce informed and accurate message, It therefore requires balancing of both Emotion and Cognitive ability by the manager to be able to influence the workers adequately. The researcher therefore recommend  as follows:- (i)  that  none of the two variables need to be neglected, ie for one to become an organizational leader, one needs at a minimum, a threshold level of knowledge in each of these capabilities, lacking in one might affect the capability of the other to function at its best.  (ii). Before any person occupies managerial position, he/she should undertake an emotional intelligence-training course to equip him/her for such position. (iii). Employers of labor should emphasis more on cognitive ability and less on paper qualification when recruiting new staff. Keywords:- Leadership communication competence,  emotional intelligence, cognitive complexity. View
4 Title: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND ENTREPRENUERIAL BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA.pdf
Author: AJE, CATHERINE OLUYEMI, PhD. AND AKINTAYO, AKINTUNDE A.
Abstract: This study investigates psychological factors as determinants of entrepreneurial business sustainability in South-West Nigeria. Primary data were used in the study. A total of 186 respondents were selected using purposive stratified sampling technique from the target population which is made up of all entrepreneurs engaged in selected business enterprises.  A Standardized scale with four sub-scales namely: Self Concept Scale (SCS), Business Commitment Scale (BCS), Managerial Effectiveness Scale (MES), and Personality Trait Scale (PTS) were used to collect data. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the study reveals that there is a significant joint contribution of the predictor variables (self-concept, managerial effectiveness, business commitment and personality traits) to entrepreneurial business sustainability. The result also shows that there is a significant relationship among the predictor variables (self-concept, managerial effectiveness, business commitment and personality trait) and entrepreneurial business sustainability. The study therefore posits that positive self-concept, personality traits, managerial effectiveness and commitment to the vision and mission statements are significant factors in the consideration of success in entrepreneurial business. It was recommended that government should facilitate promotion of entrepreneurial training and development in order to boost the morale of entrepreneurs among others. Keywords: Entrepreneurial business, Psychological factors, Sustainability. View
5 Title: GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS AND LOW COST HOUSING PROJECTS IN VAUDREUIL.pdf
Author: PIERRE BEAUCHAMP AND KASUN HEWAGE
Abstract: Given the general lack of empirical data for evaluating green infrastructure (GI) in housing development projects, this study analyzed the costs and anticipated benefits of a GI housing project development in the City of Vaudreuil-Dorion, Quebec, Canada, including roads, drainage, water supply, and wastewater. The concept of managing storm water, wastewater, and water supply connected to a constructed lake within a closed loop has not been evaluated in detail previously. This study evaluated the economic costs and benefits of the investment in dollar terms using three methods of calculation: (1) the Centre for Neighborhood Technology National Green ValuesTM Calculator, (2) the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation’s Life Cycle Costing Tool, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. The findings of this study indicate that a GI project can provide significant economic and environmental benefits to cities. Keywords: Green infrastructure, Hedonic price, Benefit transfer method View
6 Title: IMPACT OF CITY BRAND ON MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS.pdf
Author: KUNJOON LEE
Abstract: The study explores the causality between the city brand equity factors, and clarifies the correlation between city brand identity and city brand loyalty. Survey with the size of 300 was gathered to be analyzed. Through a rigorous instrument development process, the following five construct were identified: brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, brand identity, and brand loyalty. The instrument was proven to have a good fit, reliability, and validity. Three factors (brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality) were analyzed on how it affects brand identity and the effect of brand identity on brand loyalty. The purpose of this paper is to provide preliminary strategical data for city development and marketers in China. Keywords: City Competitiveness, City Brand, Brand Equity, Brand Management View
7 Title: EFFECTS OF FORIEGN POLICY DYNAMICS ON MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN THE GULF OF GUINEA.pdf
Author: BOAZ MEMPHIS
Abstract: The age-long significance of the West African Sub-region to global commerce or economy is not dwindling and, by all appearances, will not even in the distant future irrespective of shocks in the price of oil. Retrospectively, the region was key to European search for economic opportunities in both the pre-colonial and colonial eras as it provided the haven of resources needed for industralization in Europe. A great number of slaves shipped from Africa to the New World were also taken from the region because of the advantage of huge oceanic freeway. Now, amidst threats of energy insecurity due to crisis in the Persian Gulf and increasing concern for securing reliable source of supply by oil importing countries, especially by the US, the Gulf of Guinea has come to the fore once more as a region with great potential for providing a significant part of the answer for emerging fears of global energy insecurity. This paper seeks to explain this role on the part of the Gulf Guinea in the context of external and domestic linkages to security and oil conflict in the region. The paper argues that quest for energy security  and  failure  by  oil  importing  countries  to  seek  alternative  energy  sources  breed  insecurity  for  oil exporting countries. We suggest an explanation on how this operates, especially in relation to the mode of governance of the oil by national leaders, multilateral institutions and multinational oil companies in the case of Nigeria’s delta region. View
8 Title: SOCIETAL CULTURE FORMAL MENTORING EMPLOYEE COMPETENCY AND PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE ORGANISATIONS.pdf
Author: EMECHETA, BARTHOLOMEW C.
Abstract: This study investigates correlates of Societal Culture influence on willingness to accept mentoring and mentor others, formal mentoring, employee competency and performance: a comparative study of manufacturing and service (Banking) firms in Nigeria. The sample consists of 384 respondents (192) from each of manufacturing and Banking sectors. Structured copies of the questionnaire were in 5-Likert type scale and Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation coefficient Statistical tool in the SPSS was used for the analyses. Our analysis revealed positive and significant relationship between societal culture influence on the willingness of mentored employees to mentor others and the willingness of others to accept mentoring relationship in both sectors although more significant in the banking than the manufacturing sectors: A positive and significant relationship between formal mentoring relationships and employees’ improved competence in both sectors although more significant in the manufacturing than the Banking sector: A positive and significant relationship between formal mentoring and improved employee performance, although more significant in the Banking sector than in the manufacturing sector. We therefore conclude that organisations that adopt mentoring culture and good interpersonal relationships create environment that helps employees develop competencies and improved performance. Key Words: Formal mentoring, Societal Culture Behaviour, Mentoring experience, Employee Competency and Performance. View
9 Title: ENDORSEMENT MARKETING AND BRAND LOYALTY OF BEVERAGE COMPANIES IN RIVERS STATE.pdf
Author: NWOGU, CECILIA UGOCHUKWU KECHINYEREM
Abstract: The study is aimed at empirically ascertaining the extent to which endorsement marketing affects brand loyalty of beverage companies in Rivers state. Data was collected from customers of the selected beverage companies operating in Rivers state as our respondents. 240 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and after data collection and collation, 11 copies were found invalid while 229 copies were found valid and useful for analysis using multiple regression with the aid of SPSS version 21 to test 3 formulated hypotheses. The study therefore found amongst others that attractiveness has the highest contribution and effect on brand loyalty. The findings implies that the physical characteristics such as beauty, fairness, darkness, tallest and other body make ups of celebrities has a positive influence on consumers buying behavior. The study concludes that endorsement marketing has significant and positive effect on brand loyalty of beverage brands in Rivers State and recommends that beverage companies in Rivers state should pay keen attention to attractiveness of their brand celebrity as this greatly affects loyalty behaviour of consumers. The paper suggests that other researchers should create a link between endorsement marketing and other variables like satisfaction, business performance etc., to see if the Correlations vary. Keywords:   Endorsement   Marketing,   Attractiveness,   Personality   Trust,   Congruency, Celebrity, Brand Loyalty, Repeat Purchase View
10 Title: FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES NEXUS IN NIGERIA (1981 2017).pdf
Author: OTIWU KINGSLEY C., PhD.
Abstract: This paper examined Foreign Direct Investment and Macroeconomic Variables Nexus in Nigeria for the period 1981 through 2017. Other specific objectives were equally and critically examined. The five (5) hypotheses that guided the study were formulated in line with the stated objectives and relevant theoretical as well as empirical literature were reviewed and evaluated. The relevant data were extracted from the annual statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria. Unit root tests were conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that the variables were integrated of order one. Other test statistics carried out include co-integration test, error correction model (ECM), granger causality and ordinary least square (OLS). Generally, the study found out that a long-run relationship exists between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. However, in specific terms, only real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) contributes significantly and positively in attracting FDI into the country. Other variables like foreign exchange rate, net export, interest rate and inflation rate were statistically insignificant. This may be as a result of poor implementation of monetary policies, instability in Nigeria financial system and instability in the crude oil price which goes a long way in determining the country’s foreign exchange rate and total value of net export. Little wonder, most of the explanatory variables were not in line with our a priori expectation. Jointly, it was established by the study that real GDP, foreign exchange rate, net export, interest and inflation rates have a positive and significant impact of about 84.2% on FDI in Nigeria. Thus, this study recommends amongst other things that monetary authorities should be more proactive and not reactive in their monetary policies. The study also recommends the need for ensuring political stability in the country so that FDI will thrive very well. Also the country should continue to diversify its economy and further boost the productive capacity of the country. View
11 Title: AUDIT QUALITYA ND NON FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN EGYPTIAN STOCK EXCHANGE.pdf
Author: VEMO GÖRÜ?LERI
Abstract: This study aims to examine the relation between external audit quality and Financial Statements Fraud Prevention. As a result of the increase of manager’s desires toward maximizing their personal benefits on account of the benefits of other parties; they tend to follow unethical behavior, through committing fraud, which has a negative impact on the reliability of the information represented by the financial Statements. To restrict this unethical behavior some studies (Okoli and Izedonmi, 2014; Al- Nimer, 2015 ; Rahimi and Amini, 2015) pointed to the possibility of relying on external audit process, particularly when it is of a good quality, because of its ability to prevent Fraud in the Financial Statements. The Study uses correlations deign to investigate this relationship. The sample consists of 100 firms listed in the Egyptian stock exchange for the period starting from 2012 till 2015. Where audit quality is measured by accounting conservatism, which is measured by MTB. While financial statements fraud is measured by integrated results of three models that detect fraud which includes; Altman Z Score, P Score, Beneish M- Score. The results of correlation indicates that there is non-significant negative relationship between audit quality and financial statements fraud, and there is no significant effect for firm size and audit firm size on this relationship; the results reveal that audit quality isnt a good predictor for Financial Statements Fraud Prevention in Egypt. Keywords: Audit Quality, Financial statements fraud, Altman Z Score, P Score, Beneish M- Score, Accounting conservatism, MTB. View
12 Title: INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIVE SKILL ON SMEs IN SRI LANKA.pdf
Author: KONUO SUNDAAH, DENEYI MLERI AND KOROOU YUCUUHU
Abstract: The paper aims to discuss these types of issues. This research study is endeavoring to develop a model, with the ideas of existing models on e-commerce, which will be applied with Sri Lankan conditions. The data collected by a survey is composed with prior models in e-commerce area to investigate this study, and it has been empirically tested to recommend an innovative model. The findings of this research reveal that poor awareness of the advantages of the e-commerce and organizational issues lined with its applications are the reasons for most of the e-commerce obstacles in Sri Lanka. The findings and suggestions of this study, can be applicable to other developing countries as well. This paper is giving a better representation of Sri Lankan market. Lastly the paper deliberates probable upcoming guidelines of this research, as well as its boundaries. This research supports to the hypothetical basis of information systems and e-commerce acceptance studies through recommending and testing a pre-acceptance model for e-commerce. The acceptance of e-commerce in SMEs in Sri Lanka has not been considerably inspected. It is obvious that the SMEs in Sri Lanka play a significant role in its economies. The findings of this study demonstrate a substantial affiliation between organizational readiness and the acceptance of e-commerce and validate the positive relationship between readiness of e-commerce and its acceptance. Keywords: E-Commerce, Acceptance, Small and Medium Enterprises, Sri Lanka View

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