Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2017 Archive

1 Title: GENDER IMPLICATION AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN AKDENIZ.pdf
Author: ANETT TIZSÉR (PhD), ESHQIP ËRISË AND MASTAKA RISTIKE
Abstract: Violence is complex problem that affect all groups in the society. 1260 students receiving vocational education in university were interviewed in this study. It was found that male students are exposed to and commit more violence over the course of education in comparison to female students. Male students’ exposure to/engagement in violence in primary school and high school is significantly higher than female students. It is a remarkable finding of the study that those who commit and are exposed violence are successful students. Approximately half of the students smoke and drink alcohol. Majority of the participants contribute positively to the resolution of problems by sharing their problems with their families and friends. Approximately 1/3 of students who are exposed to and commit violence in university would consider applying to a violence bureau if there was any in their universities. Keywords: Violence, vocational education, academic performance, university students View
2 Title: IMPACT OF AUDIT QUALITY ON NON FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.pdf
Author: GIORIFIKA ALMANIJA
Abstract: This study aims to examine the relation between external audit quality and Financial Statements Fraud Prevention. As a result of the increase of manager’s desires toward maximizing their personal benefits on account of the benefits of other parties; they tend to follow unethical behaviour, through committing fraud, which has a negative impact on the reliability of the information represented by the financial Statements. To restrict this unethical behaviour some studies (Okoli and Izedonmi, 2014; Al- Nimer, 2015 ; Rahimi and Amini, 2015) pointed to the possibility of relying on external audit process, particularly when it is of a good quality, because of its ability to prevent Fraud in the Financial Statements. The Study uses correlations deign to investigate this relationship. The sample consists of 100 firms listed in the Egyptian stock exchange for the period starting from 2012 till 2015. Where audit quality is measured by accounting conservatism, which is measured by MTB. While financial statements fraud is measured by integrated results of three models that detect fraud which includes; Altman Z Score, P Score, Beneish M- Score. The results of correlation indicates that there is non-significant negative relationship between audit quality and financial statements fraud, and there is no significant effect for firm size and audit firm size on this relationship; the results reveal that audit quality isnt a good predictor for Financial Statements Fraud Prevention in Egypt. Keywords: Audit Quality, Financial statements fraud, Altman Z Score, P Score, Beneish M- Score, Accounting conservatism, MTB. View
3 Title: MATERNAL MORTALITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: JEBBIN MACLEAN FELIX (PhD) AND TAMARAODUBO THOMAS AKPOKABOWEI
Abstract: Given the alarming rate of maternal mortality in Nigeria and its attendant consequences, this study examines the relationship between maternal mortality and economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2016. The data for the study were generated from secondary source (World Bank Data Bank, United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization and Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin). Since the data are time series data we subjected them to stationarity test using the Philip-Peron Test. The Johansen cointegration test was adopted to test the existence of long-run relationship among the variables, and the result confirms the existence of the long-run relationship. The parsimonious result established that domestic investment (DIV) has a positive and significant relationship with economic growth. The result also established that maternal mortality has a positive and significant relationship with economic growth. This is because majority of the women, who are victims of maternal death have poor autonomy and are mostly found in the informal sector where their activities were not adequately captured. We, therefore recommend that the autonomy of the women be improved through education by awarding them scholarship.    View
4 Title: EFFECTS OF TRADE FAIR ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.pdf
Author: BËRX HOLLID (PhD)
Abstract: Fair trade is an alternative trading model that combines trade with empowerment and sustainable development. 2013 was the year of impressive growth for fair trade. Shoppers spent $.5 billion on Fair trade products, a 15 percent increase on 2012 figures. As Olivier (2014) argued that fair trade products are sold in 120 countries and serve over 1.3 million farmers and workers in 70 countries. The main objective of this paper is to study how fair trade supports sustainable development. A theoretical discussion that considers the concepts of sustainable development and fair trade is presented. This paper found that fair trade plays an important role in supporting sustainable development. Moreover, fair trade products can be used as a vehicle to support sustainable production and it acknowledges that this cannot be done without sustainable consumption. Keywords: Sustainable Development, Fair Trade View
5 Title: EXERCISE IS MEDICINE THE RECOMMENDED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR DIFERENT AGE GROUPS AND HEALTH BENEFITS.pdf
Author: JOSEPH, RUGAI (PhD)
Abstract: People of earlier generations did significantly more physical work than we do today. Technical achievements and the associated social developments have created a situation in which we are much less active in our daily lives. Mechanizations of labor, motorization of transport, household appliances and modern means of communication have made our lives easier in many respects. But this freedom from physical drudgery also has its drawbacks. Most people hardly move any more— either at work or at home or in getting from one place to another. Physical inactivity is now identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. This is detrimental to health. Our bodies therefore need — even today -- a certain minimum degree of strain and exertion in order to function well and to remain healthy. Exercise is Medicine, regular physical activity reduces the risk of wide spread conditions and diseases such as obesity, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer and breast cancer. Physical activity has a positive effect on our psychological well-being and quality. Physically active individuals live longer. They are also mentally fitter and need less care in old age. For children, regular physical activity improves fitness, psychological well-being and bone health and has a beneficial effect on body weight and on the risk profiles for cardiovascular and embolic disorders. This article focuses on the basic recommended physical activities for different age groups (childhood-old-adulthood,) and their health benefits. Keywords: Physical Activity, Health, Age groups View
6 Title: COMMUNITY GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE (CGS) AND VIOLENT CONFLICTS IN RIVERS STATE.pdf
Author: EZE WOSU (PhD) AND DESTINY EZE AGWANWO
Abstract: The failure of Community Governance Structure is one of the causes of violent conflicts in Rivers state. The study examines the causes, weakness of traditional institution which has affected the socio-economic, cultural, governance and communal sentiments of the people in the state. This is due to the emerging trend of alien culture in the communities – urbanization, industrialization and political wrangling that has destroyed the communal peaceful existence. The CGS compromised the alien culture in terms of bribery and corruption, sale of employment chances/contracts, embezzlement of community funds etc. As an explorative study, interviews, observation, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to elicit data. The use of indigenous language or dialect was a key communication instrument to get a deeper understanding of the problem. Findings reveal that the failure of traditional or community governance structure manifested into violent crisis in traditional chieftaincy stool, land dispute, royalties and contracts from Multinational companies (MNCs), community governance, political positions etc., hence, the destruction of community cultural heritage, life and property and forced displacements of persons. The study recommends that community leaders should go back to their abandoned traditional values and norms to select and strengthen the weak Community Governance Structure in our various communities for peaceful co-existence. KEY WORDS: Community; Conflict; Leadership; Urbanization; Industrialization View
7 Title: THE SOCIOLOGY OF WEB 2.0.pdf
Author: SAIDA KHEIRA BENAMMAR
Abstract: Web 2.0 starts from people to people, a user is the producer of digital content and he is the consumer of it interchangeably with other users and it is not necessarily for all users to be producers, some of them settle for only browsing the web, also the web create social relationship between users like online relationship or maintain other offline relationship, in this part we will introduce an initiation in the sociology of web 2.0 or social web to identify what is social in social web? And how social web changes social relationship between individuals. Social web is a platform that functions to connect people and facilitate communication, collaboration and participation for them within a relations network characterized through a set of communicative tools and applications called web2.0 applications represented in blogs, social networks sites, wikis, discussion forum, micro blogging…etc… they call it social web because it connects people and help them to build communities and create or maintain offline/online relationship, where Christian Fuchs indicates that: “social networks platforms (we will detailed in another chapter) is the ideal example expressing what is termed web 2.0, that it enable maintaining and building social relationship”. Adding: ”web 2.0 applications like social networking platforms keep individuals busy generating personal information that they display online in social networking profiles, blogs..Etc, most of these application are built in such way that each participant has his/her own space that he/she creates and maintains. Keywords: web 2.0, Networks, social capital View
8 Title: ARE PERCEPTIONS OF GREATNESS ACCURATE A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BRIAN O’DRISCOLL’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE IRISH RUGBY TEAM.pdf
Author: PETER D. LUNN AND DAVID DUFFY
Abstract: We test whether public perceptions of Brian O’Driscoll’s greatness were accurate. O’Driscoll was an automatic selection for Ireland’s rugby team yet missed matches through injury, allowing us to treat injury as random. We estimate that O’Driscoll was worth a converted try per game and improved the chance of victory by more than home advantage. None of O’Driscoll’s Irish contemporaries made such a contribution. His impact also compares favourably with New Zealand’s best players of the era. Our estimates have implications for debates about wages in professional rugby. They also demonstrate how statistical techniques can be applied to an everyday issue, allowing us to conclude that perceptions of one Irishman’s greatness were warranted. View
9 Title: REVENUE A PILLAR TO ORGANIZATIONS STRUCTURAL POLICY WITH RESPECT TO STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION.pdf
Author: IBAMA, KELLYIYI CHIKA KELLY (PhD)
Abstract: This research is designed to investigate the capacious (roomy) nature of revenue (money) in accommodating the structure strategy fit in the organization with regard to strategy implementation in quoted companies in Nigeria. In achieving this, questionnaire and personal interviews were used while data were analyzed using the simple percentage and frequency distribution methods: we found that the rule of division of labor in these organizations achieves the expected goal in generating revenue because the interactive work approach among departments also achieves increase in set operational targets such as revenue (money). Therefore we conclude that, the organizational structure and the strategy (policies) made thereof, depends on the revenue (money) generated. View
10 Title: ECONOMIC RECESSION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AS PREDISPOSING FACTORS TO ANXIETY LEVELS OF HIGHER INSTITUTION WORKERS.pdf
Author: MBAEZE, I.C., PhD.
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of economic recession and political participation on anxiety levels of higher institution workers in Imo State. Three hypotheses were postulated and tested. A total number of 250 participants which consisted of 128 males and 121 females were employed. Participants included academic and non academic staff. Three instruments were used for the study which are self evaluation questionnaire- STAI form Y-I by Charles D. Spielberger, political participation scale developed by H.G. Gough, H. McClosky and Meehl (1951) and Economic Recession Scale developed by the researcher. A survey design and a two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed in the study. Results of the study indicated that economic recession did not influence anxiety level, f(1,247) = 1.891, P>0.05 and political participation did not influence anxiety level F(1,247) = 1.67, P>0.05 of the workers. Results of the study were discussed and recommendations also made. View
11 Title: DYNAMICS OF BUDGET IN ETHIOPIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES.pdf
Author: DIN REFORRA AND MEVER NASEVA
Abstract: This study seeks to investigate internal (intrinsic) factors that affect budget utilization in public universities of Ethiopia in 2016. A total of 178 respondents were randomly selected from Dilla, Wolaita Sodo and Bule Hora Universities. Primary data were collected using closed and open questionnaires. To supplement the survey result secondary data were collected from federal general auditor annual report. The data were analyzed using various descriptive statistics. The findings indicated significant improvement of budget allocation to public universities from time to time. However, lack of proper planning and allocation of budget in these Universities were found to be serious challenges. Inadequate timely revision of initial proposed physical activity plan based on the approved and available budget, inadequate knowledge on the concept of program budgeting system, shortage of adequate number of human resources and insufficient involvement of all concerned bodies during the budget plan preparation were found to be main the causes of the aforementioned problems. Decentralized budget administration system, absence of result oriented evaluation of budget performance and regular revision of plan in accordance with the available budget, lack of effective communication, lack of effective budget monitoring and evaluation, and absence of full involvement of the line managers in planning process were identified as the most important internal factors that affected budget utilization in public universities. This study recommended that due attention should be given by University top management during budget plan, allocation and implementation. The result also suggested capacitating the employees skill, knowledge and attitude through continuous on job training programs.                                                                                                       Keywords: Budget Utilization, Public Universities, Internal Factors, Ethiopia View
12 Title: X RAY OF ETHIOPIAN MACROECONOMIC POLICY BETWEEN 2007 AND 2017.pdf
Author: WUSSEN MAILA
Abstract: Despite its sustained economic growth and one of the fastest growing non-oil producing economies in Africa, Ethiopia had experienced soaring inflation distorting allocation of resources and deterrent to undertaking productive investments. In effect, households in Ethiopia especially urban poor were badly hurt and still the problem persist all over the country. This paper has critically reviewed the trends, the main causes and consequences of inflationary pressure and the role of macroeconomic policy in Ethiopia. The result showed that the magnitude of inflation in Ethiopia was found to be very high and the trends of inflation in Ethiopia seem to continue. Four main causes of inflation in Ethiopia were identified. The result concur with theories of inflation as an economic growth phenomenon, demand-pull and cost-push theories of inflation, the monetarist explanation of the causes of inflation, and fiscal budget deficit as the main source of inflation. Moreover, some oligopolistic pricing by few distributors/traders in Ethiopia was also identified as the major determinant of inflation. This implies the presence of monopoly power/market failure in price formation. To this end, the Ethiopian government has adopted various fiscal and monetary policy measures to control and mitigate the adverse effects of inflation in the country. A mix of monetary policy instruments such as adjusting reserve requirement and interest rates, and sale and purchase of bonds have been implemented for lessening the effect of inflation and better performance of the economy. However, the effectiveness of these policies in achieving the intended goal largely depends on the institutional factors that constrain the implementation process of the policy. To contain inflation, therefore, the government needs to exercise conservative fiscal and monetary policies measures. Keywords: Inflation, fiscal and monetary policies, Ethiopia View

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