Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2018 Archive

1 Title: A TRADITIONAL COMMUNITY IN THE CHAO PHRAYA RIVER BASIN CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A WATERFRONT COMMUNITY COMPLEX.pdf
Author: PATIPHOL YODSURANG, MIKI HIROMI AND UEKITA YASUFUMI
Abstract: Abstract Traditional waterfront communities are extremely significant in understanding the role and influence of the daily lives of an indigenous amphibious culture and are considered to be a counterpart of the contemporary community that would have existed in the past. This study gives a systematic overview of the traditional waterfront community complex in the Chao Phraya River Basin to identify the phenomenology and salient features characterizing the waterfront community through the analysis of the following: 1) features of geography and waterbodies; 2) cultural landscapes and agricultural activities; 3) urban components; and 4) architectural features. A total of 138 traditional waterfront communities were selected using the purposive sampling method. Quantitative data collection was conducted using field investigation to collect and evaluate the validity of properties in actual conditions. The data were analyzed using a statistical analysis program to examine the similarity and correlation of the data set. To identify characteristics, hierarchical clustering and decision-tree analysis were used to group similar communities together and classify the complexity of a traditional waterfront community. Principal component analysis was then used to detect the true association between the relevant variables. In addition, qualitative assessment of secondary document collection, legislation, previous and present public policies, research, and criticisms were used to support the argument for statistical analysis. The results provided seven clusters based on common preferences consisting of a market town, paddy village, raft community, waterfront market, comprehensive estuarine agricultural village, orchard village, and fishing village. These clusters show diversity in the cultural landscape, with agricultural activities exerting influence on the community complex, creating both direct and indirect association, with several significant variables. Keywords: traditional waterfront community, Chao Phraya River Basin, classification, characteristics View
2 Title: WHAT SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT DO TO STOP EPIDEMIC OF SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS IN INDONESIA.pdf
Author: HARSMAN TANDILITTIN
Abstract: Abstract Smoking epidemic has occurred among the Indonesian adolescents, as the nearly six out of ten the youth of ages 13 to 15 years smoke daily. In fact, Indonesia has also been known as "the country of smoking baby", as some family smokers have deliberately introduced the way of smoking to their toddlers. In Indonesia, the most new smokers has been ensnared by the tobacco industry, as they started to smoke when they were minors, which are in incapable condition to make rational decisions. In this context, moral question emerge: Is the government obligated to prevent teenagers from taking-up cigarettes, and what should the government do to stop the smoking epidemic among the adolescents in Indonesia? To answer these questions, this paper contain two main study: First, the author has conduct a survey to present an overview about the ensnarement of new smokers and the dilemma of the tobacco retailers in selling cigarettes to minors in Indonesia. Second, the author presents an overview of the negative impacts of tobacco on children and an obligation analysis of the government to prevent adolescents from taking-up cigarettes. It will then propose some approach to stop smoking epidemic among the adolescents in Indonesia. Keywords: addiction, adolescents, ensnarement, government, paternalism, smoking, tobacco control View
3 Title: CONTEXTUAL CHANGES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE AGENTS OF THE HORTICULTURAL BELT OF LA PLATA ARGENTINA.pdf
Author: EMANUEL GÓMEZ AND GUILLERMO HANG
Abstract: Abstract Purpose: This study aims to analyse the major political, socio-economic and technological changes that have occurred in recent decades and their influence on the analysed territory and to reflect on how the adaptive processes of development actors have emerged in the horticultural zone of La Plata, Argentina. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative methodology is used to address the object of study. A non-random purposive sampling was taken of state officials and the private sector, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Findings: It was observed how changes in context have impacted the development actors, who mobilise different personal and institutional resources to adapt to the changing situations. To assess the degree of adaptation, the trajectory of the agents from their internship experience as professionals, work in the territory with other actors, training and experience reports were considered. Practical implications: In the territory under study, a professional heterogeneity is observed, comprised mostly by agronomists (both in the public and private sector), who develop different working strategies in the context of the individual policies and guidelines of each institution. The changes that have occurred in the country during the past 25 years have impacted policy related to rural development, creating situations that have led to various professional development actors to resignify their careers. Originality: The careers and competences of development agents acting in rural areas are an emerging theme under extensive discussion in Argentina. Keywords: Policies, Competences, Agents, Development, Public, Private, Horticulture, La Plata View
4 Title: THE NIGER DELTA AND SECURITY CHALLENGES A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE AMNESTY PROGRAMME.pdf
Author: BINA ODOGU, PhD.
Abstract: Abstract Nigeria’s Niger Delta has been a subject of public discuss for several reasons. The explorational activities of multinational oil companies paid off in 1956 when oil was discovered in commercial quantity at Oloibiri. This discovery paved the way for exploitation activities that has affected the area in different ways. The Niger Delta people are of the view that they have contributed so much to the development of the nation without a corresponding attention in terms of development. To draw the Federal Government’s attention to their plight, they have employed dialogue, propaganda, peaceful demonstration around the oil producing company’s premises, vandalization of oil pipelines and lately kidnapping of oil company workers and their spouses or children and even wealthy Nigerians for ransom. It is this latter option of kidnapping and hostage taking that the Nigerian Government has tagged “Militancy” and has done a lot to douse or stop because of tis negative effect on the finances of the country. President Umaru Musa Yaradua took a bold step by granting unconditional amnesty to all Niger Delta Militants. As noble as the amnesty programme seemed and the achievement it has recorded, critiques mostly those from the Niger Delta have picked holes in the execution of the amnesty programme with particularly attention on the aims of its founders and ultimately posit if it has actually addressed the security challenges prevalent in the Niger Delta before the granting of the amnesty. View
5 Title: RESTORING TRADE UNION CULTURES AGAIN THE ISSUE OF TRUST AND INTEGRITY.pdf
Author: JOHN MARK, PhD.
Abstract: Abstract The Nigerian Trade Union Movement has always been seen as a leviathan. In its earliest wake, the doctrine and principle of membership interest was her utmost concern. As such, regional membership culminated into federal unit. This no doubt again, was on the grounds that union members held on to the philosophy of the house. But whiles this traversed the times, it appears, due to regional values and various idealogical practices of professions, the house is now faced with the issue of trust and integrity among incoming leaders. The paper then being an empirical one, avers that there is need that the Nigerian Trade Union return to the drawing board. The paper employs likert scaling method and secondary literatures and concludes that the house can still be formidable again if these cultures can be restored and reaffirmed by union members. Keywords: Trade unions, trust, integrity, organization-structure, organization design. View
6 Title: AUSTRALIA’S ENGAGEMENT IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA UNDER THE PROSPECT THEORY APPROACH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR AUSTRALIA VIETNAM RELATIONS.pdf
Author: HUYNH TAM SANG
Abstract: Abstract Prospect theory, first described in a 1979 paper by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, proves to be an effective tool to explain how people evaluate risk and make decisions in experimental settings. Due to remarkable insights for social sciences, prospect theory has gone beyond economics and provided insights for international relations. This paper aims at using prospect theory to illuminate the nature of Australia’s engagement in the South China Sea (SCS) and thereby clarify the essence of Australia-Vietnam cooperation. In terms of prospect theory approach, the author argues that there are three factors specifying Australia’s involvement in the SCS, including: (i) the rise of China in the SCS, (ii) Australia’s significant interests in the SCS, and (iii) Australias proactive middle-power status. In light of certain common interests in the SCS, Australia and Vietnam have been sharing serious concerns about security and the risk of conflict in the SCS. From the year 2009 until now, both countries have actively enhanced diplomatic, political and military ties. Regarding Australia’s status and strategic interests in the SCS, the author asserts that Australia should make the SCS more secure by promoting contributions to accommodate its status in the Asia-Pacific region. The findings of this paper would provide helpful guidance for policymakers and leaders from Australia and Vietnam for a better understanding of the increasingly complicated security environment and how to (re-) create a more stable environment in this region. Keywords: Australia, security, South China Sea, cooperation, prospect theory, Vietnam. View
7 Title: DEVELOPMENT IMMIGRATION AND SOCIAL HARMS OF IRANIAN SMALL TOWNS A CASE STUDY.pdf
Author: FATEMEH NAZIFI
Abstract: Abstract Immigration is compelled by social, political and economic factors. One reason for immigration is claimed to be seeking better future. Then the mentioned transitions could be daunting, affecting social marginalization, loss of social networks, health care access issues and adverse health consequences, including depression and anxiety. It is claimed that immigrants encounter challenges while acclimatizing to their new country and a majority of them might be influenced by the process of immigration. It is claimed that the Islamic revolution, political changes, war, and sanctions from the United States of America have obliged many Iranians to flee their homeland over the last three decades and social harms of this immigration; especially through Iran was required to be studied. This research was a survey conducted in Qiamdasht which is a small town in Ghaniabad Rural District, in the Central District of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran. In this study, systematic random sampling was applied, resulting in 245 participants to be interviewed and respond to the questionnaires. The design of this research included Survey Research and Ex-Post Facto. Since this was a survey in which the selected families were investigated in terms of economic, cultural and social aspects, interviews and questionnaires were used. To measure the dependent and independent variables through questions, a questionnaire in 8 pages containing 69 open-ended questions on 9-point Lickert scale was established. The data were transferred to SPSS version 21 for further analysis. The results revealed that Immigrants observe the codes of ethics less than the others. Immigrants have lower Socio-economic status. Immigrants play a smaller role in solving the social affairs. Immigrants own low-level desires and wishes. Immigrants apply rationality in their life affairs less than the others. By improving their socio-economic status, immigrants better observe the codes of ethics, their rationality improves, their social mobility improves, their role in social affairs improves, moreover, it was found that by improving their economic development, qualitative development increases and finally immigration rate was found to have a diverse relationship with qualitative development. Keywords: development, immigration, social harms View
8 Title: ISSUES OF REFERRAL AND PSYCHOL HEALTH IN EMPLOYEES ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE.pdf
Author: WABAH GOODNEWS, PhD. AND JEREMIAH GABRIEL UNWENE
Abstract: Abstract This paper espouses on the issue of referral of university staff and psychol medicine in the health care system. For one5 there is the synergy that organization performance and growth has so much in alliance with employees’ well being. It then follows that a breach in one may affect the other, especially in latter, being the need for employees to constantly be in good health to increase productivity. However, while these brilliant ideas may be said to be enduring, the health policies on state owned universities have not really look into the area of referral of a university staff in moments of critical conditions. It may be argued that within each university is the local infirmary. But this is not enough. A staff should be able to decide a clinic of his concern and receive service in the organizations name rather than having to endure the delay in provisions which many a time leads to the demise of the staff. As well it is the concern for psychol medicine as this tends to affect corporate workers more than the structural and the biochemical medicine. The paper then, being a position one, avers that there be an inter statutory service (ISS) where university staff can register and receive an all round medical service at will or in moments of critical conditions without having to endure the bureaucratic processes in government owned sectors. KEY WORDS: Health care, Organization performance, Inter Statutory Service, referral and psycho medicine. View
9 Title: THE CHALLENGES OF ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING METHODS OF PRINCIPALS TO CREATIVE AND FUNCTIONAL SECONDARY EDUCATION IN RIVERS STATE.pdf
Author: SAMUEL NARIOCHUKWU OWHONDAH, PhD. AND WALI, WORLU ISAAC, PhD.
Abstract: Abstract The study focused on the challenges of accounting and auditing methods of principals to creative and functional secondary education in Rivers State. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive research design was adopted. A sample of 40 principals (20 rural and 20 urban) was used representing about 15% of the 258 principals of the senior secondary schools in the 10 out of the 23 local government areas of the state. The Accounting and Auditing Questionnaire (AaAQ) was used to elicit data for the study. The descriptive statistical approach was used to answer research questions while the t-test inferential statistics was used to test the hypotheses. From the results, the accounting and auditing methods were poor, whereas the challenges were very high for creative and functional secondary education in the area. The test of hypotheses discerned a significant difference in accounting methods and no significant difference in auditing and challenges. It was recommended that school administrators and national leaders should always uphold effective accounting and auditing methods as well as combat its associated challenges through financial rationality and prudence, good and realistic budgeting system, sincerity and integrity in financial matters, effective management, and selflessness. Keywords: Challenge; accounting method; auditing method; creative education; functional education View
10 Title: EVOLUTION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN IRAN BASED ON ORGANIZATION OF SPACE.pdf
Author: PETER ARMSTRONG AND AMIR RASTEGAR
Abstract: Abstract Iranian architecture and urbanism have developed in a historical process based on the different needs of people. The evolution of traditional Iranian architecture and urbanism may be characterized by eight factors: introversion, spatial organization, function of different parts, lifestyle, construction method, communication between houses, climatic conditions, and relationship with nature. In the recent decades, however, Iranian architecture and urbanism have faced a blind imitation of foreign cultures. The majority of modern buildings do not reflect the national identity of Iranian people. This paper investigates the architectural and urban transformation in Iran based on the rearrangement of building spaces. In doing so, the paper explores the development process of major interior and exterior elements such as public entrances, private entrances, kitchens, rooms, yards and open spaces. As a conclusion, while traditional Iranian architecture attempts to preserve the national identity and meet the different needs of Iranian people, the modern architecture is a blind imitation of western cultures. Keywords: Architectural transformation in Iran, arrangement of spaces, room, entrance, yard, open space View
11 Title: VALUE ADDED TAX AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA A SIX-YEAR LONGITUDINAL SURVEY FROM 2009-2014.pdf
Author: OLAGUNJU ADEBAYO, PhD.
Abstract: Abstract The study investigated the effect of Value Added Tax on Nigeria’s Economic Growth. A survey was undertaken to evaluate and assess the relationship between Value Added Tax and the measures of Economic Growth used in this research work, that is, the GDP, PCI and BOP. This study made use of longitudinal survey which cuts across several years (six years). The study made use of secondary data which is from the Statistical bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the FIRS bulletin. Others were sourced from journals, fact books, and seminar paper. The regression analysis was used to analyse hypothesis 1-3. Data relating to the Value Added Tax and economic growth was used to construct the Ordinarily Least Square (OLS) model of regression and SPSS 20 was used to analyse the data. The findings show that there is no significant linear relationship between VAT and GDP, PCI & BOP. The study concluded that even though Value Added Tax reflects an insignificant linear relationship to Nigeria’s economic growth, it still remains an integral part of the Nigeria economy. As such, Nigeria will grow economically if the status quo is sustained; though there is always room for improvement. Key Words: Value Added Tax, Economic Growth, Gross Domestic Product, Per Capital Income, Balance of Payment View
12 Title: THE CULTURAL ROOTS OF CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC TERRORISM AND WAYS OF CONFRONTING IT.pdf
Author: HANI AHMED SHBOUL
Abstract: Abstract This study aims at analysis and explanation of the phenomenon of the Islamic terrorism from a cultural perspective; i.e. a cultural reading of the religious violence phenomenon, and how the cultural systems would view the religion-induced use of violence at various levels. Generally, the unique nature of a culture sustains as well as revitalizes certain variants of extremism and terrorism. In the present study, the hypothesis was that the prevalent sociopolitical culture dominating the thinking of the majority of Arab Muslims, which is originally inspired by the religious and historical repertoire, was one of the most effective mechanisms producing extremisms and terrorism. Hence, to stand up to terrorism most effectively, the overall thinking shall be revolutionized towards a civic culture drawing on which to establish the critical mindset based upon novel social values that are capable to interaction with the most recent breakthroughs of the contemporary civilization of the globe. The researcher, as a consequence, recommends reproduction of the current Muslims culture by employing the educational and media institutions to disseminate an open-minded civic culture that tolerates with others, and accepts multiculturalism and diversity. To that end, the researcher adopted the Content Analysis approach to analyze the content of the dominating culture and its relation to the production of terrorism and ways of confrontation. Keywords: Culture, Terrorism, Reason, Transmitting, History, Islam View

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