Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2018 Archive

1 Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG PARENTS IN MALAYSIA THE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACH (SEM).pdf
Author: MOHD AMIRUL RAFIQ ABU RAHIM, ISMAHALIL ISHAK AND SITI AISHAH MOHD SHAFIE
Abstract: The study attempts to investigate the factors that influence family life satisfaction (FLS) among parents in Malaysia. The study modeled the variable of parental involvement, family functioning, family resilience and time with family as independent constructs. Data for the study was gathered from nationally representative survey of “Family Well-Being Index” study conducted by National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia. Response from 2808 sampled households which involved about 1484 (52.8%) fathers and 1324 (47.2%) mothers of having a child aged at least 13 years old were utilized for the purpose of the current study. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was employed by using Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) software. The study found all the modelled independent constructs tested had a significant and direct influence on family life satisfaction among the respondents except for parental involvement construct. The findings of the study suggests that some improvement should be made for the parental involvement constructs which covers different aspects of family life satisfaction which will lead the measurement model be more heterogeneous. Keywords: Family Life Satisfaction, Parental Involvement, Family Functioning, Family Resilience, Time with Family, Structural Equation Modeling View
2 Title: IMPACT OF USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING (ODL) AS AN EMPOWERMENT TOOL FOR WOMEN IN ZIMBABWE.pdf
Author: NYATSANZA TAURAI D. AND MTEZO J.
Abstract: Women constitute about 52% of the total world population, but they form only nine percent of the total productive work force mainly because women have lagged behind in education. Distance education has provided women with an opportunity to redress the situation. ODL is endowed with high flexibility and can meet the demands of education for women of all persuasions which the conventional education system is unable to meet. Empowerment is an active multi-dimensional process which enables women to realize their full potential in all spheres of life. The study examined how ICTs have influenced the empowerment of women through ODL in Zimbabwe. The population for the study were Zimbabwe Open University women alumni from the ten regions of Zimbabwe. The study was qualitative and used a sample of ten purposively selected women from the ten Regions of the Zimbabwe Open University. Key informant interviews and nominal group discussions were held using internet and the social network forums. The study found out that, the use of ICT in Open and distance learning hasequippedwomen intellectually and empowered them through acquisition of skills and knowledge. ICT in ODL has rendered women more informed, autonomous and liberated. Keywords: Developing Countries, Empowerment, Information and communication technology (ICT) Open and distance learning (ODL). View
3 Title: EFFECT OF DEPTH PERCEPTION ON MOTOR COORDINATIVE ABILITY OF TRIBAL ADOLESCENTS.pdf
Author: ARUN KUMAR NAYAK, PhD.
Abstract: Adolescence (lat adolescere = (to) grow) is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. This transition involves biological (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological changes, though the biological or physiological ones are the easiest to measure objectively.-Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods of life, since dramatic physiological, psychological and cognitive changes take place at these ages. The cognitive changes along with perceptual development may affect their motor coordinative abilities as well specially in tribal adolescents, who belong to altogether different socio cultural environment. Reaching for a pen, grasping a doorknob, driving, roller skating walking-etc. which are examples of few physical actions-all involve well-coordinated movements made with well-balanced postures. In fact, whenever we move the three basic functions of movement, balance, and coordination work in concert to produce graceful, purposeful motions of body parts Key words: Adolescent, Depth perception., Tribal adolescent, Monocular cues, motor coordination. View
4 Title: MENTORSHIP AND TEACHERS’ TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN RIVERS STATE NIGERIA.pdf
Author: BENEBO – SOLOMON WILHELMINA, PhD.
Abstract: The study examines the influence of mentorship in terms of psychosocial and professional support in public primary schools in Rivers state. To achieve the objective of this study, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study and a sample of 734 teachers and 2202 primary five pupils were randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The questionnaire titled “Mentorship and Teachers Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (MTE) and Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTE) One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze data collected and test the stated null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The result of the findings revealed that mentorship, in terms of psychosocial support, professional support, has a significant influence on teachers’ job performance. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that teachers’ job performance is significantly influenced by the professional and psychosocial support received from mentors; while it was recommended among other things that teachers should be given the needed psychosocial support to enable perform their job efficiently. View
5 Title: ODUAL AND KALABARI RELATIONS 1900 2010.pdf
Author: MICHAEL, T. B., PhD.
Abstract: This paper examines intergroup relations in the Niger Delta using Odual and Kalabari relations from 1900-2010 as a case study. Odual and Kalabari has over the years established contacts that cut across all facets of human lives and has spanned through the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial eras of their history. The colonial and post-colonial era of Odual and Kalabari relations experienced changes due to colonial administrative structures, missionary activities, educational development and politics. The changes impacted on the economic, political and socio-cultural lives of both groups. However, no scholarly work has been done on Odual and Kalabari relations to bring to lime light their contributions to the economic, political and social developments of the region. As regards methodology, the primary and secondary sources were employed to generate required data mainly from oral interview, intelligence reports, books, journals, articles. Since knowledge cut across disciplines, the work also made use of Multidisciplinary approach to further enrich the available historical data. The study reveals that Odual and Kalabari have long years of relationship influenced by historical ties, economic, socio-cultural and political conditions. Furthermore, the colonial and post-colonial eras of Odual relations with her neighbours resulted to increased volume of trade, markets, marriage contracts, socio-cultural ties, common language, political and economic co-operation, migrations and settlements which eventually culminated to land disputes, Political marginalization, deprivation and total neglect. The relationship between Odual and her neighbours was not totally peaceful as there were pockets of wars and conflicts but in such times, the use of diplomacy, dialogue and tolerance by the Odual and Kalabari guaranteed peace. The researcher therefore recommends deliberate study of intergroup relations between bigger and smaller groups, abhorrence of internal colonialism, use of diplomacy and dialogue to resolve differences amongst others. Key Words: Odual, Niger Delta, Kalabari, Intergroup Relations View
6 Title: COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PHYSICAL FITNESS OF VOLLEYBALL AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS N UNIVERSITY LEVEL.pdf
Author: AJOY BAG, ALOKE SEN BORMAN, PhD. AND BINOD CHAWDHURY, PhD.
Abstract: Background: Physical fitness is an essential first and foremost criterion in every game. Without having physical fitness no one can elicit his amble performance level. Therefore it is essential to investigate that in which game among Volleyball and Football, the level of physical fitness is more essential. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of physical fitness of volleyball player and football player in university level. Methodology: For the present study 15 male volleyball players and 15 male football players were selected randomly and they had participated in university competition in 2004 from Jadavpur University. Age group of the subjects was 18-24 years. To find out the physical fitness APHERED Youth Physical Fitness Test were conducted. Statistics: For comparison of various physical fitness components of volley ball players and football player independent t-test has done and level of significance has verified at 0.05 levels. Result: Finding reveals that muscular strength of football player (5.33 times/min. pull ups) was higher than volley ball player (4.87 times/min. pull ups), the muscular endurance of football player (39.86 times sit ups) was higher than volleyball player (38.73 times sit ups), agility of football player (19.32 sec.) was higher than volleyball player (19.78 sec.), explosive leg strength of football player (6.90 mts.) was higher than volleyball player (6.78 mts.), Speed of football player (6.70 sec.) was higher than volley ball player (6.99 sec.) and also cardiovascular endurance of football player (1.82 min.) was higher than volleyball player (1.82 min.) but the difference in agility and speed were significant at 0.05 level. Conclusion: The physical fitness of football player was higher than the volleyball player. Keywords: Physical fitness- volleyball- football. View
7 Title: ONE YEAR PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS DURING TRAINING AMONG BOXING PLAYERS IN HARYANA A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.pdf
Author: VIKASH KUMAR ANDKULANDAIVELAN S.
Abstract: Objective: To find out overall, gender specific, site specific and type of injury specific prevalence rate of musculoskeletal injuries in boxing players. Methodology: Study Design: Cross sectional, survey study, retrospective model. Sample size: 105 boxing players (73 males and 32 females). Method: Injury data was collected from each player using modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Injury Questionnaire. Data analysis: Data was entered into MS Excel for further analysis. Results: 48 players out of 105 was injured leading to 46% overall prevalence of injury among boxing players. Males injured slightly higher than females. Upper limb injuries were the most common area followed by lower limb. Wrist & Hand, Knee & Leg, Low back the most common sites of injury. Sprain and strain accounted more than 90% of total injuries. Conclusion: Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is high among boxing players. Conditioning by coaches and early rehabilitation by physiotherapists are essential to reduce the injury rate in this population. Keywords: Gender difference, Incidence, Soft tissue, Sprain. Strain, Injury rate View
8 Title: YOUTH EMPOWERMENT ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND JOB CREATION IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: CELINE OBIAGERI UGWONYIKE AND AUGUSTINE ONUEGBU NWALA
Abstract: This article examines the impact of youth empowerment and entrepreneurship on the Nigeria’s economy, focussing on opportunities for job creation. It defines youth empowerment, entrepreneurship and job creation and argues that these variables would impact positively on the Nigerian economy if properly harnessed. The article is theoretical and employs only secondary sources of data to achieve its set objectives. In conclusion, it posits that youth empowerment and entrepreneurship will galvanize job creation and by so doing make positive impact on the economy. The article therefore recommends that Nigerian government should invest massively on youth empowerment and entrepreneurship in other to reduce and alleviate poverty in Nigeria. View
9 Title: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL HEALTH AND STRESS LEVEL OF URBAN AND RURAL WORKING AND NON WORKING POST MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.pdf
Author: HUNDEKAR, P. S., ITAGI, S. & YENAGI, G. V.
Abstract: One hundred twenty employed and non-employed post-menopausal women from rural and urban locality were selected by purposive sampling method from Dharwad Taluka. The data was collected by personal interview from 60 urban employed & non-employed and 60 rural employed & non-employed post-menopausal women with mean age of 44.5. Physical and General Health Inventory (PGI) developed by Wig and Verma (1978), Stress Index Questionnaire by Ivancevich and Matteson (1980) and Socio-Economic Status Scale developed by O.P.Agarwal (2005) were used for the study. Results showed that 41.66 % urban women belonged to high SES group followed by 36.66% in upper high SES group, while 33.34% of rural women belonged to lower middle SES group followed by 28.34% in upper middle SES group. Significant difference was found in the physical health status of urban employed and non employed postmenopausal women, whereas no such differences were observed between rural employed and non employed women. Significantly a higher percentage of urban employed women (63.34%) were severely affected by different physical problems as compared to rural employed women (46.66 %). Higher percentage of the urban non employed women (90%) found to have severely affected physical health status, whereas only 50% of rural non employed women fell in this category. Though 73.34% of urban employed & 45% rural employed women belonged to high & upper middle socio economic group most of the post-menopausal women expressed about having severe physical health problems like backache, insomnia, dizziness, weakness, eye problem, sweating, uneasiness, irritability and loss of memory. It was found that, there is a significant relationship between physical health, stress and socio economic status of both urban and rural women. Keywords: Age of menopause, Menopause, Postmenopausal health, Quality of life; Urban and Rural Indian women, Women health. View
10 Title: DOMICILIATION AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AS PREDISPOSING FACTORS TO COHABITATION AMONG STUDENTS OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS.pdf
Author: MBAEZE I. C., PhD.
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of domiciliation and social adjustment on cohabitation among students of higher institutions in Owerri. Three hypotheses were postulated and tested. The participants in this study were three (300) hundred students who were selected using simple random sampling and stratified random sampling from Imo State University, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Federal University of Technology and Imo state Polytechnic. Participants’ ages ranged from 19-29 years with a mean age of 24 years. Two different questionnaires were administered to the participants, the social maladjustment scale developed by Wiggins (1966) and the perception of cohabitation scale, developed by the researcher (2018). The researcher administered the social maladjustment scale (S.M.S) and the perception of cohabitation scale (P.C.S) to the participants (undergraduate students) in their classroom, after lecture. The study employed a cross sectional survey design, and data obtained was analyzed using (2 way ANOVA) statistics. From the means obtained, students living in rural areas (m=40.38) scored slightly higher than their counterparts living in Urban areas (m-40:23) on the perception of cohabitation scores. Students who are maladjusted (m = 40:96) scored slightly higher than students who are adjusted (m = 40.10) on the perception of cohabitation scores as well. Results showed that both domiciliation and social adjustment had no significant influence on the perception of cohabitation among students of higher institutions in Owerri [F (1, 2 96) = 2, 771 p >.05] at 95% confidence interval. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that school managements or the government should make the university environment conducive and sanitized for undergraduates, as this will help them reduce the high rate of cohabitation in the tertiary institutions. View
11 Title: DETERMINING SOURCES OF INCOME AMONG PADDY FARMERS IN MUDA IRRIGATION REA MALAYSIA.pdf
Author: AHMAD ZUBIR IBRAHIM, CHAMHURI SIWAR AND BASRI ABDUL TALIB
Abstract: This paper aims to determine the determinants of income among paddy farmers in four regions of Muda irrigation areas. For this purpose a total of 225 paddy farmers in Muda irrigation areas were randomly selected. The result of the study showed that the agricultural income accounted for 73.6% of the total income paddy farmers in Muda irrigation area. While side income accounted for 9.23%, non-agricultural income accounted for 12.47% and other income accounted for 4.45% of the total income of the paddy farmers in this area. Through the double log regression analysis, the study shows that the ownership of lands, land rent, non-agricultural income, subsidy recipients, education level, and number of part time job of household members have a significant result which is a positive relationship towards the income of paddy farmers in this area. To enhance the income, farmers are exposed to rice industry chain value through rice by-products of straw. At the same time, income enhancement programs for the aimed groups need to be strengthened and exaggerate appropriately. Keywords: income, paddy farmers, Muda irrigation area View
12 Title: THE EFFECT OF SOMATOTYPE PROFILES OF ADOLESCENT BASKETBALL PLAYERS ON BIOMOTORIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ABILITY.pdf
Author: UMUT CANLI
Abstract: In this study, it is aimed to determine the relation between somatotype profiles of basketball players age range of 12-14 with the biometric characteristics and abilities particular to basketball. Attendants are 41 basketball players whose average age is 13,07, who are exercising regularly and playing basketball in infrastructure local leagues. Some measurements are performed on attendants such as the body height, the body weight, vertical jump, 1 mile run-walk, aerobic power, anaerobic power, skinfold thickness measurements (triceps, subscapula, suprailiac, calf), circumference measurements (biceps flexion, calf), diameter measurements (humerus bicondular, femur bicondular). While their somatotype characteristics are determined as per Health-Carter method; their abilities particular to basketball are determined by using Harrison Basketball Ability Test (Kamar, 2008). Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk Tests are applied so as to determine whether the data is suitable for normal distribution. Distributions of all tests comply with the normal distributions for both two tests. Pearson correlation cofactor is used so as to determine the relation between varieties. With the endomorphic measurement values; a positive-directional relation is detected between 1 mile run-walk and the body weight values and a negative-directional relation between vertical jump, aerobic power and ability values (p<,05). With the endomorphic measurement values; a positive-directional relation is detected between 1 mile run-walk and body weight varieties and a negative-directional relation between aerobic power and ability values (p<,05). With the ectomorphic measurement values; a positive-directional relation is detected between aerobic power and ability and a negative-directional relation between 1 mile run-walk, vertical jump and anaerobic power values (p<,05). As a result, an increase is observed in aerobic power and abilities particular to basketball of adolescent basketball players who have ectomorphic characteristics. Keywords: Somatotype, Biometric, Ability, Basketball. View
13 Title: PERSONALITY TRAITS OF WHEEL CHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS.pdf
Author: ABEBE ESHETU DEGATI
Abstract: Wheelchair basketball is a type of team sport. The rules are similar to those of traditional basketball with the small difference of the game being played in a sitting position on a wheelchair. This article describes the research concerned with personality traits displayed by the wheelchair basketball players of the highest world level. Answers to questions that were based on a psychological method of assessing ones personality were used to write the article. The authors try to determine which personality traits contribute to success in sport, whether leading world players have similar personality traits, and whether in an internationally successful team the same characteristics help or impede the game. As there is only a limited amount of literature on the subject of wheelchair basketball, and even less on the subject of sport psychology concerned with disabled players, this research is based on actual need for information. The results can be used as the basis for posing following question about disabled team sports: whether the models of functioning in a group are different for people with disabilities and without them. Additionally it is important to analyze whether personality traits of athletic people with disabilities differ from personality traits of people without disabilities. The research subjects consist of a highly selective, unique group of people of the highest, world athletic level. Key words: Wheelchair basketball, personality traits, “Big Five”, team sports View
14 Title: PUBLIC SECTOR INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (1981 2017).pdf
Author: OTIWU KINGSLEY C., PhD.
Abstract: This paper examines economic development vis-à-vis public sector investment in developing country like Nigeria over the period of 1918 – 2017. Other specific objectives were equally examined. The four (4) hypotheses that guided this study were formulated in line with the stated objectives and relevant conceptual, theoretical as well as empirical literature were reviewed and evaluated. The relevant data for the study were extracted from the annual statistical bulletin of central bank of Nigeria. E-views econometric package was used in this study as our data analysis technique. Unit root tests were conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that all the variables were stationary at order I (1). This gave room for further analysis. The Johansen co-integration test using both Trace and max-eigen value criteria revealed two (2) co-integrating equation at 5% level of significance. Thus, there is a long-run relationship among the variables of interest. However, the Error Correction Model (ECM) showed that the error correction term for per capita income (PCI) equation is properly signed with a negative coefficient of -0.058871 and a significant t-statistic of -3.113056 (0.0037) at 5% level of significance. Hence, in an event of disequilibrium, the yearly speed of adjustment is about 5.9%. The ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis revealed that ADM, ECS, SCS and TRF have positive relationship with PCI. However, only ADM showed a significant relationship. Collectively as such, the explanatory variables account for only about 96.24% variation in the dependent variable. The granger causality test shows that ECS and ADM, SCS and ADM, and TRF and ADM have bi-directional relationship; while PCI, ECS and TRF respectively have a unidirectional relationship with SCS. However, in line with our a priori expectation, the study revealed a positive relationship between the dependent variable (PCI) and explanatory variable (ADM, ECS, SCS and TRF). However, total public sector investment has been on a yearly increase and this account for positive relationship between each of ADM, ECS, SCS, TRF and PCI. The study therefore, recommends for proper management of government expenditure so as to avoid waste of financial resources as well as checkmating other macroeconomic indicator like inflation rate. The study also recommends that government should make public sector investment more effective in such a way as to increase her expenditure in relevant sector (Education and Health) in line with United Nations directives. The study equally recommends for curtailment, if not totally stop misappropriation, misapplication or mismanagement of public funds. View
15 Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED PHYSICAL FITNESS VARIABLES WITH THE PERFORMANCE OF ETHIOPIAN JUNIOR SPRINTERS AND MIDDLE DISTANCE ATHLETES....pdf
Author: DHANAPATI SHOUGRAKPAM
Abstract: The present study has seriously made an attempt to discover the relationship between selected physical fitness variables with the performance of Ethiopian junior sprinters and middle distance athletes across Genders. The subjects for the present study consisted of 240 sprinters and middle distance athletes 14-20 years of age. For the purpose of the study, the total population have been included from three different athletics centres. To achieve the objectives of the present study, moments of Pearson correlation have been used. From the results it has been found that, 40m sprint speed has a positive relationship with 100m best performance for male and female athletes. However, sit and reach have a positive but broad jump has a negative correlation with female 100m best performance. Speed endurance was significantly correlated positively with 400m best performance for male athletes. However, wall squat sit has a negative and 40m speed test has a positive but both had a significant correlation with the performance of female athletes. 40m speed and 300m speed endurance have negative and significant correlation with male 800m performance. Whereas, only 300m speed endurance has a significant positive relationship with 800m best performance of female runner. Wall squat sit is found to be significantly correlated negatively to 1500m performance of male athletes. Other physical fitness variables have no correlation. However, none of the physical fitness variables used in this study have a relationship with the best performance of female athletes. Keywords: Correlation, Middle distance race, Performance, Physical fitness, and sprinting View

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