Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2019 Archive

1 Title: IMPACT OF FIRM SIZE ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT A STUDY OF TEXTILE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN.pdf
Author: KASHIF KHURSHID AND AKHTAR MAHMOOD
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of firm size on earnings management for the textile sector of Pakistan. For this purpose annual ten years data was obtained from 2004 to 2013 for fifty selected firms from the textile sector of Pakistan. Natural logarithm of total assets was used as the proxy of firm size. On the other hand earning management was the dependent variable of this study. Earnings management was measured through discretionary accruals by using modified Jones model. Descriptive statistics, correlation and panel data analysis was used for capturing the impact of firm size on earnings management. The statistical results of this study revealed that there is positive and significant impact of firm size on earnings management. Keywords: Firm Size, Discretionary Accruals, Earnings Management, Karachi Stock Exchange View
2 Title: AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING ON ONLINE SHOPPING BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMERS.pdf
Author: MD. SHARIFUL ISLAM
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. One of the objectives of this study is covering the shortcomings of previous studies that didnt examine main factors that influence on online shopping behavior. This goal has been followed by using a model examining the impact of perceived risks, infrastructural variables and return policy on attitude toward online shopping behavior and subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, domain specific innovativeness and attitude on online shopping behavior as the hypotheses of study. To investigate these hypotheses 200 questionnaires dispersed among online stores of Iran. Respondents to the questionnaire were consumers of online stores in Iran which randomly selected. Finally regression analysis was used on data in order to test hypothesizes of study. This study can be considered as an applied research from purpose perspective and descriptive-survey with regard to the nature and method (type of correlation). The study identified that financial risks and non-delivery risk negatively affected attitude toward online shopping. Results also indicated that domain specific innovativeness and subjective norms positively affect online shopping behavior. Furthermore, attitude toward online shopping positively affected online shopping behavior of consumers. Keywords: online shopping, shopping behavior, consumer attitudes, perceived risks, B2C, e-commerce. View
3 Title: INFLUENCE OF INVESTMENT CLIMATE ON TECHNICAL EFFICIENCIES OF INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: F. A. AJAGBE, J. O. AJETOMOBI AND D. V. DLAMINI
Abstract: This study examined the influence of investment climate on technical efficiencies of industries in Nigeria. The study was conducted in two phases namely (i) an estimation of the technical efficiency (TE) was carried out and, (ii) differences in TE across firms were statistically related to  indicators of investment climate and firm-level characteristics. The analyses made use of 2009 World Bank Enterprise survey data on Nigeria. The results showed that food industry was more labour intensive and less efficient than other industries in Nigeria. The importance of scale, export and firm ownership was evident from the significance of the variables in all the industries. The results point to the fact that firms in Nigeria can improve their productivity by learning from customers and by facing international competition. Investment climate difficulties had less effect on food industries than others.  The sector could be a good starting point in the nation’s industrialization policy drive if available resources can be utilized optimally. Key Words: Investment Climate, Infrastructure, Efficiency, Nigeria  View
4 Title: THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON THE PROFITABILITY OF PUBLIC & PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL BANKS.pdf
Author: SAMINA RIAZ, MUHAMMAD FURQAN AND SOHAIB SOHAIL SIDDIQUE
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of advertising on the profitability of commercial banks over the period of 2008- 2012, in the presence of control variables: Credit risk, Operating Efficiency, total advances to total deposits, total loans to total assets and Size(total assets) ratio. Bank’s profitability is measured in terms of return on equity (ROE) .The data has been obtained from the publications of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) and commercial banks. The regression results confirm the positive and significant effects of advertising expenditure on ROE for private sector banks than public sector banks. Keywords: ROE, ROA, Advertising, Credit Risk, Operating Efficiency, Bank Deposits & Advances View
5 Title: IMPACT OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP STYLES AND TEACHER QUALITY ON TEACHER PRODUCTIVITY.pdf
Author: JOHN OLAKITAN ODUNLAMI, HASSAN ALI, PhD. AND SHAHIBUDIN BIN ISHAK, PhD.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to predict teacher productivity from principal leadership styles and teacher quality using social learning and full range leadership theories as the foundation. This is a relationship research that used both correlational and regression design. The study involved 344 participants made up of 305 teachers and 39 vice principals from 39 secondary schools in Lagos state, southwest, Nigeria, through systematic random sampling. The research instruments were the MLQ-6S for teachers’ ratings of their perception of principal leadership styles on a 5 scale Likert behavior scale of 1= never, 2=rarely 3=sometimes, 4= frequent and 5= always; teacher quality assessment questionnaire TQAQ and teacher productivity questionnaire TPQ that were both rated by the vice principals on a scale of level of agreement or disagreement in which 1= strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree and 5= strongly agree. Data collected from responses to questionnaires were entered into the SPSS software first to clean up the data and also to ensure it complied with the requirements of multivariate analysis. Next was exploratory factor analysis for data reduction and to establish construct validity of the research instruments. The results of the factor analysis returned the factorability of all study variables and the scale of measurement of research instruments showed acceptable alpha coefficient of reliability (α) ranging from .594 to .924. Thereafter, correlation analysis was undertaken, followed later by multiple regression. Correlation returned a verdict of strong and positive relationship between each of transactional leadership styles and teacher productivity (r=.488, p=.000) and a low and negative correlation between teacher quality and teacher productivity (r=.186, p=.000, The results of multiple regression indicated that transformational leadership TFL (β =-.118, t=-2.111 p=.036) is significantly related to teacher productivity only at 95% significant level and not at 99% significant level. But transactional leadership TSL (β = .524, t=8.288, p=.000) significantly predicted teacher productivity in a positive manner at both 95% and 99% significant level. However, teacher quality TQ (β =048, t=-.758, p= .449) is not significantly related to teacher productivity in a positive manner. The implications of the findings of this research is that transactional leadership style better predicts teacher productivity than transformational leadership style and that teacher quality doesn’t translate automatically into teacher productivity. This confirms that there is need for school principals to monitor instruction supervision to ensure quality teaching and learning. because it is classroom practice of a teacher that matters. One thing is for a teacher to have the required knowledge; it is another for him to effectively pass it on to the pupils to the extent of making them achieve academic success as he/she provides evidence of teaching productiveness. Keywords: Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, teacher quality and teacher productivity View
6 Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC PLANS AND PERFORMANCE OF SACCOS IN NYERI COUNTY KENYA.pdf
Author: AHMED MOHAMEDYARE ABDIKARIM AND PAUL WAITHAKA, PhD.
Abstract: Despite the market forces the co-operatives societies in Kenya have continued to flourish in membership and size. In the current open global economy, saving and credit co-operatives (SACCOs) just like other financial institutions in the private sector must endeavor to be effective in offering proficient services in order to attract and maintain their members. This has forced SACCOs to develop strategic plans as a roadmap to ensure sustained SACCO performance. This study aimed to establish the effect of implementation of strategic plans on SACCOs’ performance in Nyeri County, Kenya. Particularly, the study examined effect of leadership style, organizational structure, human resource management, and information communication technology on performance of SACCOs in Nyeri County, Kenya. The study employed explanatory research design. The target population for this study comprised of 36 SACCOs in Nyeri County. Due the size of target population, a census was conducted where all SACCOs were included in the study. Structured questionnaires were used for primary data collection. Descriptive, inferential analysis was used to analyze quantitative data while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The study found that democratic leadership endeavored to promote team spirit among the workers as well as encouraging team work while empowering individual employees. The study found that SACCOs’ management slightly involved junior teams in development of strategic plans. The study also found that human resource department in most SACCOs recognized and conducted rapid promotions for exemplary performance among the SACCOs employees. The study found that majority of the SACCOs had adopted and enhanced ICT culture across all departments in their SACCOs. However, the study found that majority of the SACCOs marketed their services to the local Kenyan market. The study concludes that quality of human resource management is important for success of SACCOs. The study concludes that adoption of appropriate Information Communication Technology not only promotes internal efficiency but also enhances external competitiveness by providing SACCOs with a platform to market their service to the global market. The study recommends that the SACCOs regulatory body should develop a guideline for SACCOs on organization structure and help them implement over a period. The SACCOs regulatory body should enforce recruitment of qualified human resource management to ensure the functions of the HR are not overlooked. Keywords: Strategic plan, human resource process, information technology leadership style and organizational structure View
7 Title: PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA’S NIGER DELTA AN EXPLORATION IN THE THEORY OF VALUE.pdf
Author: ONYEUKWU, UCHECHUKWU AND CHUJOR, OKWAH FORTUNE
Abstract: Peace and development have not been great in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The reasons for this are what this study identifies and examines within the framework of the theory of value. The work contends that pseudo-federalism and political hedonism are the obstacles to peace and development in the Niger Delta. Pseudo-federalism in Nigeria is a product of the over-concentration of power at the center and this prevents states from exercising control over their natural resources. Political hedonism in the Niger Delta which arises from the failure of the ruling class to control the appetitive nature heightens material accumulation and reduces the capacity to meet the aspirations of the people. The results are feelings of marginalization and violent agitations in the Niger Delta which impede peace and development in the region. The study recommends region-centered federalism in Nigeria and a reflective approach to politics in the Niger Delta. Key words: Peace, Development, Niger Delta, Pseudo-federalism, Political hedonism View
8 Title: NIGERIAN IMMIGRANTS POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR EMIGRATION N IKE OGUINE’S A SQUATTER’S TALE.pdf
Author: TAMBARI OGBONANWII DICK, PhD. AND JOSEPH ABUH
Abstract: Migration is a global phenomenon. A number of factors have been identified as responsible for human mobility across the globe. To the developed world migration for exploration of new investment opportunities; to the developing world, it is the running away from social crisis of varied dimensions. It is more of involuntary than voluntary. The mass exodus of African immigrants into Europe is an indication that all is not well on African continent. The government of the various African states are not doing enough to make life worth living for the citizens such as the creation of jobs opportunities, sufficient funding of education and other social neglects are reasons for mass movement of Africans and Nigerians into Europe.. Oguine has demonstrated that African political leaders should take the blame for whatever misfortune that befalls African immigrants abroad. A Squatter‘s Tale is therefore an indictment on African political leaders who have failed in providing for their citizens thereby driving them into crime abroad. The ‘Push and Pull’ theory will be adopted in the analysis of the text for a holistic interpretation of the author’s ideological perception. Keywords: Migration, Crisis, Insurgence, Insecurity, Conflict View
9 Title: CREATING A CULTURE OF ADAPTIVE ACCOUNTABILITY IN AN ORGANIZATION.pdf
Author: ABU-HUSSAIN JAMAL AND OLEG TILCHIN
Abstract: The three-step method for creating a culture of adaptive accountability in an organization is proposed. It is aimed to promote adaptation of taking accountability of employees for the changes in a work environment. The changes are engendered by variability of the organization’s objectives. The dynamic work environment is formed in the first step. It includes determination of the needed actions corresponding with the current objective of the organization, the action structure, and the actions-relevant skills, the difficulties in performance of the actions, and the extents of accountability for the actions that are correlated with the actions’ difficulties. Adaptation of taking accountability of employees for the actions to their aspiration and readiness to perform the actions is realized through a coordinated self-evaluation process in the second step. The employees evaluate their aspiration and readiness to perform the actions by examination of individual skills and the work environment. Aspiration of the employee to perform the action is induced by the condition implying more compensation for the action having the more extent of accountability. Readiness of the employee to perform the action is evaluated on the basis of the degree of difference between employee skills and the action-relevant skills. Adjustment of the employees’ compensations to their accountability for the actions is fulfilled by taking into consideration the extents of accountability for the actions in the third step. Keywords: Adaptive accountability, a culture of accountability View
10 Title: LAW AND INTERNATIONAL RELATION IN AN EVOLVING WORLD.pdf
Author: CHUKWU DORIS, PhD.
Abstract: This work is basically on international law and the evolving trends in international relations. The aim of the study is to examine developments in the international arena that enhanced the growth of international law, especially in the face of the technological advancement that has heightened globalization processes. The theoretical framework adopted is the theory of peaceful coexistence founded on the idealist theory. The idealists emphasized on the inherent good in man, which if transferred into the society can create order and peace for all. The early proponents of this theory were influenced by the 30 years war of the 16th century Europe that brought in the concept of sovereignty from the 1648 Peace of West Phalia. The end of the Napoleonic war led to the advancement of law of states geared towards the management of peaceful coexistence and the abandonment of force as a means of settling disputes. This is the foundation of international law that have continued to develop with the increasing relationships in the international society. Emerging issues including Human fights, environmental protection, trade, finance etc have been addressed by international law. Several rules binding on all states regarding these issues have been developed. This obviously shows that the world has witnessed evolutions that have impacted on relationships among states. The progressive development of international law with the prevailing changes in the international system has maintained peace and order in the global system. It is in this light that the work recommends improvement and consolidations of peaceful relationships among states and the strengthening of regional co-operations and effective coordination of the United Nations as the World Umbrella to carry out her law originating and harmonizing role in the unfolding trends in the international society.  View
11 Title: RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYEE COUNSELING SERVICES AND PERFORMANCE OF NGOS IN KENYA.pdf
Author: MUO CHARLES
Abstract: Employee performance is key to the success of many organizations. This service is normally provided by the human resources in that organization. Corporate leaders of business organizations provide employee welfare services among them employee counseling services as a way of either motivating their employees to improve their productivity. However, little information is known about such as employee counseling services by all the stakeholders in NGOs. The primary purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between employee welfare services and performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were: to assess the influence of employee counseling services on performance in NGOs in Kenya. The study is likely to aid the NGOs management boards, policy makers in government, human resource professionals and scholars and researchers in policy formulation for employee counseling services in order to improve performance in NGOs in Kenya. The study employed both correlational and descriptive survey designs. The fundamental model shaping this study was the linear regression model. The target population of the study was 14,283 employees in NGOs in Kenya. The sample size of the study was 372 respondents comprising junior management at 242, middle management at 97 and top management staffs at 33 chosen by simple random stratified sampling technique. Primary data was collected using both questionnaires and interviews. The data was analyzed using the Statistical packages for social sciences (version 23). The main findings of the study indicated that employee welfare practices such as employee counseling services influenced performance of NGOs in Kenya. The study also found that 81% of performance in NGOs in Kenya was explained by the independent variables of the study such as employee economic support, recreational facilities at work place, employee counseling services and social support. Finally, the study also contributed to theory and knowledge for humanity. However, the study found that the most significant factor influencing performance of the NGOs in Kenya was employee social support with P- Value at 0.439, followed by employee economic support with P- Value at 0.372, recreation facilities with P- Value at 0.358 and lastly employee counseling with Value at 0.208. The study had limitations, that is, the respondents were not consistent and the sample size of the study was limited in scope. The study concluded that employee welfare practices such as employee counseling services had a significant positive relationship with performance in NGOs in Kenya and recommended that a policy on other employee welfare practices such as grievance cells and suggestion schemes be considered and adopted by NGO management boards. This is likely to motivate employees to work better and with determination to enhance performance in NGOs in Kenya. Keyword: Employee counseling, performance View

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