Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2020 Archive

1 Title: HOUSEHOLD DECISION MAKING PROCESS OF RURAL WOMEN IN BANGLADESH.pdf
Author: SYED MUHAMMAD SAJJAD AND SHADIKA JAHAN
Abstract: Most of the women in Bangladesh are not empowered to participate in social, economic, and political decision-making process of the country, which is one of the important elements of women empowerment. Within this context the study is designed mainly to identify the areas of participation of women in household decision making and contributing factors of their participation level as well. The specific objectives of the study are to: (a) identify the area of women participation in household decision making (b) identify the significant factors influencing the participation of rural women in decision making processes, (c) measure the degree of participation of women in different areas of household decisions. Raichow village of Comilla Sadar Upazila was purposively selected as the sample for the study. Selected respondents (100) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. It was found that women participation in joint decision is comparatively higher (above 50%) in house making/repair, family planning, education of son/daughter, purchase of household goods, treatment of family members and membership in local institutions. On the contrary, the percentage of women’s alone decision in presence of household head was rarely observed (highest in family planning only 15.5%). It has been also observed that in the absence of household head/husband, women’s responsibility in the family increased. In the Raichow village, most of the women took household related decisions in absence of household head/husband. The correlation coefficient is significant between women decision level and their age (0.257; α = 0.05) and education (0.206; α = 0.10); but not significant relationship was found between women decision level and their income. That means women’s age and education is positively related to their decision making level. Keywords – Household decision-making, Rural Women, Women Empowerment   View
2 Title: IMPACT OF APEC IN TERMS OF TRADE.pdf
Author: RUMMANA ZAHEER, PhD.
Abstract: The paper aims to see the effect of Nominal and Real (External) Exchange rates of the U.S dollar on its Terms of Trade with two of its APEC trading partners Australia and New Zealand for the period 1991 to 2010. For analysis, the whole values, percentage changes and relationships between Nominal and Real Exchange rates and Terms of Trade of U.S with the two countries has been taken into consideration. The Classical Regression analysis is used and it was found that the Real Exchange rate was overvalued as compared to the Nominal Exchange Rate. It was also found that when compared to Nominal exchange rate, Real exchange rate is more effective in explaining the TOT. The Real AUD/USD had both short run and long run impacts on the TOT of U.S.A with Australia but the Real NZD/USD had no impact on the TOT of U.S.A with New Zealand. View
3 Title: LANGUAGE ORALITY AND NATIONAL COHESION.pdf
Author: OMOLARA FAITH ANELE AND JOY NKECHI OBUNWO
Abstract: There are incidences of conflicts, mistrusts and dichotomies in multilingual countries but many of them find a common ground to coexist as a people. Language is an ethnic identifier and a unifying factor. It is primarily a means of communication by which humanity was made and constantly refashioned. Recent development in the academia tends to emphasize the supremacy of orality in regulating and organizing societies of varying complexity as a preferred mode of socialization and pedagogy. With technology providing many coded materials in verbal and non-written genres, approximately 80% of the world population are oral learners by necessity or by preference (Wiles, 2017). This paper identifies the impact of orality (spoken, sung or chanted stories, proverbs, poems, songs, riddles etc) as a means of portraying social behaviors and national phenomenon, and as well navigates territories, and delineates the geographical, spiritual, social and historical contour of environments. Orality, also, shows how a rule-governed process generates linked variants. It discusses cultural, linguistics and political problems, and explores the ambiguities of gender, ideology and identity within society’s complex communities. This paper, therefore, makes case for orality as a means of national cohesion by creating and sustaining inter-ethnic harmony and development. It advocates an “orality movement” that should be academically sound, culturally sensitive and anthropologically based to take seriously, the cultural communication pattern and preference of all ethnicities of a nation such as Nigeria.  Keywords: Orality, Cohesion and Language. View
4 Title: SOCIAL IMPACT OF VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION ON NASCENT SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN.pdf
Author: MUHAMMAD NAWAZ TUNIO&PIR IRFAN SHAH RASHDI
Abstract: Nascent society of Pakistan has potential towards the use of emerging technology for the social perspective, as social perspective of new technology has filled social gaps among the people living at distances. Besides filling social gaps, virtual communication has provided opportunity to find out new friends, people of different disciplines and to establish new social network and to extend social zone at local, national and international level. Through virtual communication, everybody is able to enjoy the taste of diversity which gives great social charm of life. This study focuses on the interest of the people of different disciplines towards the virtual communication. Keywords: ICT, social network, communication. View
5 Title: HOW TO TEACH ACADEMIC READING MORE EFFECTIVELY LEARNERS’ REMARKS.pdf
Author: KETKANDA JATURONGKACHOKE AND SUPAMIT CHANSEAWRASSAMEE
Abstract: The present study was conducted at a Thai graduate school where for over 40 years of offering a reading course, approximately 20%-80%, making 50% of students on average, could pass it. Thus, the co-authors analyzed the textbook while asking their students to complete a questionnaire. The participants were 54 graduate students. The tool employed in this study was an open-ended questionnaire. The three options about how each student felt about the textbook—appropriate, too easy, or too difficult—set out the study. Despite the quantitative results divulging the difference in considering the textbook as ‘appropriate,’ ‘too easy,’ or ‘too difficult,’ most of the respondents mentioned the inadequacy of some fundamental grammar lessons and vocabulary practices. Some participants required Thai translation for some parts which were difficult to comprehend. Some articles in the textbook were outdated, had no pictures, and caused confusion. The contents were also too long for the class to cover within the 45-hour time frame, resulting in the instructors’ scurry to finish the textbook. To be specific, their evaluation of the textbook mainly relied on the test as the benchmark. A rich source of data is proved to be the open-ended questions where all participants can articulate themselves freely. Keywords: academic reading skills, graduate students, SLA, Thailand View
6 Title: THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN RIVERS STATE MINISTRY OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND REHABILITATION IN RIVERS STATE NIGERIA..pdf
Author: DANIEL URANTA, PhD., BEATRICE UMUOMA S. AND VERONICA EKE
Abstract: This paper examines how social works practice enhance social work and other related activities towards achieving her goals and objectives. The application of the concept social work practice enables the social work institutes to achieve reformation on social development, conflict resolution, dispute settlement, community service national development and social satisfaction. With the aid of the necessary information collected from the study department through the cross sectional oral interview, survey, questionnaire and personal observation, a total population size of 355 was used to determine the sample size of 135 for effective collection of information or data. 135 questionnaires were given out to the case study, only 84 questionnaires were completely returned. The concept of social, administration, socio-criminal justice, social welfare work were examined and the findings indicate that effective use of social work methods such as social administration, social research and community development will lead to national development. Keywords: social administration, social group work, social satisfaction and social justice. View
7 Title: STATE OF NIGERIA’S OIL ECONOMY AND COVID-19 PANDEMIC THE AGRICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE.pdf
Author: UGWU, CHIOMA SCHOLASTICA AND UGWU, CHUKWUMA FELIX
Abstract: This paper on state of Nigeria’s oil economy and COVID-19 pandemic: The agricultural perspective focused primarily on the current condition of the economy of Nigeria, its major source(s) of survival and the implications on the growth of the economy as well as the need for diversification. Relying on secondary materials, the paper argues that over the years the Nigerian economy has depended greatly on production and exporting of oil, giving little attention to the development of non-oil sector. These technically plagued the country into recession and affected the economic wellbeing of the nation at different periods. The economy has remained import reliant and undiversified. This has thrown the nation into challenges of slow gross domestic product (GDP), high rate of unemployment, poverty, and poor social services delivery amongst others. The current state of the economy and the future of the economic wellbeing of its population, coupled with COVID-19 pandemic remain elusive. An inclusive economy of both the oil and non-oil sectors performance remains crucial to cushion the effect of volatile economy, complement and provide a balanced growth. Successive governments’ economic recovery policy abound, nonetheless, the economy remains unstable and volatile. It is therefore the aim of this paper to propose economic policy that would engender economic growth and development through diversification particularly to the agricultural sector. The sustenance of economic policy by the government and support of stakeholders and professionals, including public administrators and social workers in policy formulation and implementation to achieve sustainable economic growth and development remain crucial. KEYWORDS: Oil economy, COVID-19, Economic growth, Economic diversification, Agricultural sector View
8 Title: REFLECTIONS ON THE MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE ANGLICAN CHURCH MANAGEMENT CONFLICT IN ZIMBABWE..pdf
Author: INNOCENT FUNGAI CHIYADZWA
Abstract: This paper explored the different views and dimensions that emerged during the conflict for leadership in the Anglican Church in Zimbabwe between the year 2000 and 2013. It is not disputed that the media act as a watchdog of the society, but in the Anglican conflict it is a mystery as to whose dog the media was as evidenced by a close analysis of the comments they wrote. While it is evident and undoubtedly clear that the religious conflicts for leadership dates back to the biblical days, it is still worthwhile to expound on whether the old motivations for leadership are the same as those obtaining in the Anglican conflict. An analysis is thus essential so as to draw parallels between the ancient church leadership squabbles and the contemporary Anglican crisis. Relying mainly on newspaper documentary evidence, this paper explored the media’s neutrality and role in the Anglican management conflict. The results showed that the media are active agenda setters who frame issues in a certain manner while ignoring or censoring other dimensions. From the perspectives of the public it was noted that the congregation got aligned to different media organizations, which shared their views in the unfolding disagreements. The old theories of succession and the spirit of schism slid back into place in a very glaring way; with power, priestly preeminence and prophetic authority taking the centre stage in the conflict in an interesting way. Key words: Anglican Management Conflict, Agenda Setting Theory, Factionalism, Prophetic Authority, Church of the Province of Central Africa (CPCA), Church of the Province of Zimbabwe (CPZ). View
9 Title: EVALUATION OF THE MENTAL SKILLS OF THE HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES EXAMPLE OF THE ATHLETES OF MARTIAL ARTS.pdf
Author: EBDELHAKIM CHERIF AND CHOHDI SOUISSI
Abstract: The domain of sport competition is developing every day so the athletes nearly have the same physical abilities and have different mental skills. Therefore, it is not possible to ignore the role of mental skills to achieve maximum performance, Heever (2007). Most sport psychologists believed that in recent years the coaches and athletes have concluded that they need psychological skills more than physical skills in order to achieve their goals, Behboudi (2007). The purpose of the present study was to compare some psychological skills of the martial arts high level athletes (judokas, boxers, wrestlers and karate as) in Tunisia. 152 volunteer athletes of martial sports (95 Judokas, 15 Wrestlers, 12 Boxers and 30 karate as) including 89 men and 63 women answered the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tools (version 4). This questionnaire assessed three categories of mental skills: fundamental skills, psycho-somatic skills and cognitive skills. The results revealed mean differences for all the mental skills between the different activities in the benefit of judokas but this differences was not significant. Despite this difference in averages, the analysis of the 12 mental skills by gender is significant only for the control of fear (significant atp<0.05. Key Words: Omsat- 4, mental skills, Martial arts. View
10 Title: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LANDLORD AND TENANT RELATIONSHIP IN TENANCY LAW NIGERIA..pdf
Author: MAXWELL NWINYE, PhD. AND IBINABO YOUNG MATTHEW
Abstract: The demand for housing in urban areas is higher than rural areas in Nigeria. Most persons’ movement to cities is to benefit from employment, decent housing and social amenities such as water, electricity and portable roads. Landlord and tenant relationships in Nigeria are basically regulated by applicable statutes of various states. The inflow of individuals to urban areas results to shortage of shelter and crisis in tenancy. Lawyers encounter some challenges in the interpretations of the provisions in tenancy laws unless where the solicitors invoke judicial precedent or decided cases that are applicable to the subject matter. For instance, the principle that a tenant or lessor who challenges landlord’s title or right of ownership will not receive statutory notice to quit at the expiration of the tenancy. Tenant can vacate the demised premises by a notice of owners’ intention to recover possession of premises and an action for forfeiture. This paper investigated the relationship between landlord and tenant in Nigeria with emphasis on types of tenancy, how to eject a tenant, effect of statutory notices in tenancy and the remedies for landlord and tenant. Therefore, the researcher recommends that government should review tenancy laws that can promote early delivery of judgment relating to tenancy so that the landlord and tenant can have confidence in seeking court redress. The article also recommends the need for government to provide sufficient housing units either by public or private partnership that will enable the less privileged persons or the vulnerable to own their personal houses. View
11 Title: SOCIO-PEDAGOGICAL CHALLENGES FACING ORPHANED AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE 2007-2008 ELECTION VIOLENCE IN NAKURU COUNTY KENYA..pdf
Author: PHILLIP MUKONYI AND SILVIA VUNDI
Abstract: The conflict situations that have afflicted parts of Kenya every five years, in the wake of general elections, since 1992 were most prominent after the disputed presidential elections of 2007. The magnitude of the clashes, loss of life, destruction of property and internal displacement of people were hitherto un-witnessed. The situation of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Kenya has continued to be of national and international concern. The 2007/2008 post-election violence exacerbated the dire situation of OVC in Kenya. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimated the number of children displaced by the 2007/2008 post-election violence (PEV) in Kenya at 100,000 and those orphaned at 300,000 high. Some of the OVC lost both parents during the violence. Many more were born during and after displacement, and have no knowledge of their homes or origin. They do not understand or even remember the circumstances that caused their parents to be displaced. A survey by UNICEF in 2010 noted that on the overall after 2007/08 post-election conflict, about 15% of orphans were 0- 4 years old, 35% were between 5 and 9 years old while up to 50% were 10-14 years old. This paper identifies  the challenges the OVC are experiencing in schools as absenteeism, lack of physical infrastructure, insecurity, psychological trauma, among others. The paper also proposes strategies and programs that various stakeholders have, and should put in place to assist OVC. Key Words: conflict, equity, gender, pedagogy, transition rates, truancy. View
12 Title: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PARTICIPATION IN ELECTIVE MATHEMATICS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GHANA.pdf
Author: PETER MCCARTHY
Abstract: This paper aims at contributing to the body of knowledge that exists in the area of differences in participation in elective mathematics, between boys and girls in Secondary Schools in Ghana. A sample of 738 respondents from five Secondary Schools was purposively selected using purposive sampling technique. All the respondents were final year students and had studied extensively more than a half of the elective mathematics syllabus. The selected schools were made up of two single-sex female schools, one single-sex male school and one mixed-sex schools from Cape Coast municipality in the central region and one mixed-sex school, from Sekondi in the western region of Ghana. Relevant data were gathered using a set of questionnaire and an interview schedule prepared by the researchers. The analysis of the personal interviews with some of the female respondents revealed various reasons why some females were attracted to the study of elective mathematics. The study revealed that the participation of males in elective mathematics was 50.5% while that of females was 27.2% giving an indication that females participated in elective mathematics less often than their male counterparts. Suggestions for increasing female participation in senior secondary school elective mathematics were made and areas for further research on the topic have also been suggested. Keywords: Senior Secondary School, Participation, STME Clinics, Mixed Sex Male, Mixed Sex Female, Single Sex- Female, Single Sex-Male. View

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