Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2020 Archive

1 Title: IMPROVING THE COMPETENCY OF THE SURVEILLANCE RAPID RESPONSE TEAM OF NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.pdf
Author: THAEWNONGIEW KESORN
Abstract: Abstract This action research aimed to improve the competency of the surveillance rapid response team (SRRT) at a district level in Northeastern Thailand and involved four community hospitals, four District Health Offices (DHO) and eight Health centers. The process of action research improved the competency of the surveillance rapid response team by facilitating and enabling to identify, implement and evaluate a program of public health emergency improvements.  Data were collected from two different sources: firstly a self-reflective questionnaire, and secondly focus groups and in-depth interviews with 50 local staffs. Improvements occurred in all skill domains, and the quantitative data  supported the qualitative findings for all skill  domains for which quantitative data was available. The surveillance  rapid response team gained vital knowledge and worked in a more cooperative and proactive  manner. The team  became better supported by administrators. Action research was found to be a productive process for  achieving valuable improvements in the competency of the staff, and represents a promising method for effective community change in general. These learning processes provided an alternative approach to  improve  the  competency of  the SRRT which will help to improve public health emergency responses in the future. Keywords: Surveillance rapid response team, Competency, Action research View
2 Title: TRADITIONAL MALE CIRCUMCISION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND PSYCHOSOCIAL LIFE OF THE BUKUSU COMMUNITY IN KENYA.pdf
Author: FLORENCE MBACHI AND SARAH LIKOKO
Abstract: Abstract Circumcision is traditionally practised among the Bukusu of Bungoma District, Western Province. This practise has  had several implications on the community and the initiates involved. This study sought to investigate the impact of traditional circumcision on the psychosocial life of the Bukusu. This study utilized a survey research design in which data was  collected on a number of variables simultaneously and at one point in time. The target population consisted   of all circumcised boys between 12 –15 years in class 8 of primary schools  in  Bukembe  location  of  Kanduyi division. Purposive sampling was used to select 100 boys from class eight and 40 parents from their households. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire and an interview schedule. Secondary data was collected from documented information about circumcision. The data collected was coded and analyzed descriptively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Based on the findings, the study established that during traditional circumcision practices, the youths were taught sacred things, secrets, dos and  don’ts,  norms  and  regulations of their community. Thus they graduated as responsible members and future leaders of the community. It was also established that circumcision practices affect the socio-economic status of the families because it proved to    be very expensive. It was also established that circumcision boosted the youth’s self- esteem because after graduation they were allowed to participate in communal activities, including decision- making.  This  made  them  feel courageous, confident, worth to be respected and socially accepted members of their community. Based on this findings, it is recommended that teachings and songs being sung during traditional circumcision should be vetted to discourage immoral behaviors among the youth and also parents should be provided with adequate information on hygiene pertaining to the long-term medical effects of circumcision so that they can make informed decisions. Key words: Traditional Circumcision, Moral, Economical & Psychological Effects of Circumcision View
3 Title: PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING MARITAL DISTRESS IN GHANAIAN MARRIED COUPLES.pdf
Author: MICHAEL T. ANIM
Abstract: Abstract This study set out to examine how much distress men and women experience in their marital relationships, and what psychosocial factors are associated with marital distress. This was done by using the Marital Happiness Scale, and a questionnaire that measured demographic characteristics, as measuring instruments. Two research questions were answered and one hypothesis was tested. They covered the differences that exist in the marital distress experiences of husbands and wives, and psychosocial factors that impact marital distress. A total of eighty (80) married men and women comprising 40 husbands and 40 wives were conveniently selected to take part in the  study.  Descriptive statistics was used to answer research question one and two and a t- Tests was used to test the difference between husbands and wives in marital distress. The findings showed that wives tested more distressed than husbands in marriages. Certain psychosocial areas showed as areas of high distress in marriages such as  communication,  time  spent together, sex relations, and friendliness. Key words: Psychosocial, marital distress, married couple, Ghanaian View
4 Title: MEASURING THE CONTRIBUTION OF SPECIFIC CULTURAL FESTIVAL TO GROWTH OF NIGERIA’S GDP THROUGH AVERAGE TOURISTS SPENDING.pdf
Author: AHAM I. PhD, PROF. COSMAS C.A., CHIGOZIE U.O. PhD, AND POLYCAP IGBOJIEKWE PhD.
Abstract: Abstract Tourists spending behaviors play major role in the potential of cultural festival to create forward linkage with other indicators of the gross domestic product (GDP).  This study focused on evaluating tourists spending behavior on the different types of cultural festivals in Nigeria to determine their direct, indirect and induced effect on each naira of direct sales and number of jobs supported. A total of 9,984 respondents were surveyed across six states (1,664 in each state). We employed Stynes fairly complete micro-computer-based system for estimating economic impacts of recreation and tourism; and the money generating model (MGM) in the data analysis, to estimate the  direct and total sales, marginal earning on each naira (income) and employment effects of tourists’ spending on state and local government revenues. At α = 0.79 we found that earning on each naira of tourist spending at the Igue cultural festival Benin city, the Riye musical festival Abeokuta, the Ofala cultural festival Onitsha, Calabar carnival, Calabar, the Kwagh hir Masquerade festival Makurdi and the Arugungun fishing festival Gusau in that order added 61 kobo, 61 kobo, 62 kobo, 89 kobo, 30 kobo and 30kobo respectively in secondary effect or induced effect. In the same order, the multiplier effect of the spending supported 2 local jobs; 2,700 local jobs; 400 local jobs; 27,000 local jobs; 15 local jobs and 21,850 local jobs respectively in the respective states. The study recommends the need to measure tourists spending within well-defined categories to identify not only the kinds of products and services being purchased and the types of businesses directly receiving these funds but to also identify the sectors receiving the spending. This is important as it ties changes in tourists spending to a regional economic model. Key Words: Tourists Spending, Cultural Festival, Economic Growth. View
5 Title: COMMUNITY CONSERVATION PARADIGM THE CASE STUDIES OF MWALUGANJE ELEPHANT SANCTUARY AND LLNGWESI COMMUNITY CONSERVANCY IN KENYA.pdf
Author: DAMIANNAH KIETI, PhD. AND GEORGE MANONO
Abstract: Abstract Conservation of biodiversity outside designated protected areas in Kenya, in the 21st  century,  is  becoming  increasingly difficult due to declining available land space, increasing human population, alienation of local people, lack of socio- economic incentives for conservation and lack of suitable models to be adopted. Although,  the  traditional national park model, led to the establishment of the key Kenyan parks and reserves,  it  cannot be  adopted  by any further study as it mainly emphasizes the wilderness and its biological resources, and places less emphases on expertise, needs and development of local communities (Wishitemi, 2008:103). Hence, the current network of  protected areas is under many threats, unpopular and resented by local communities. As a result, the concept of community participation in tourism and other development initiatives has gained support since the  1980’s.  Biodiversity resources outside Kenyan parks and reserves are under dangers of extermination unless communities are brought back to the center of conservation and appropriate community conservation areas  outside  this  current  network of Protected Areas are explored. Moreover, these community conservation areas must  incorporate  local wishes and succeed in working in lived landscapes that present a meeting place for human needs and conservation of local resources, especially in wildlife dispersal areas and pastoral communities of Kenya. Of necessity, community conservation initiatives must originate and be run by local people, and these projects should generate sustainable livelihoods, while securing dependable, sustained access to essential natural resources. Using the case study of Mwaluganje elephant sanctuary and Ilngwesi community conservancy, this study  examines  the  efficacy  of community conservation. Specifically, the study assesses how the development of community conservancies have contributed to environmental conservation and improved livelihoods of the local community. Finally, the paper discusses the development and future prospects of community conservation in Kenya. Keywords: Community, Conservation, Ilngwesi, Mwaluganje, Paradigm, Sanctuary. View
6 Title: VERTICAL OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITIES A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATORS IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: MMECHA, HELEN OZIRI., JOAB-PETERSIDE, SOFIRI AND OKODUDU, STEVE A.
Abstract: Abstract Many university administrators change their occupations of origin after acquiring relevant additional skill, knowledge and experience in their administrative jobs. This study examined the impact of vertical occupational mobility among university administrators on the development of universities in Southern Nigeria, with regards to how it influences professionalism, effective inter-cadre interface and effective policy implementation in the Registry section of universities. Three objectives and research questions guided the study. The theoretical framework is comprised of the Work Adjustment Theory and General Systems Theory. The research type is ex-post facto and the cross-sectional survey research design was adopted to study a cross-section of the population of 5,645 university employees. Six sample States were selected through cluster and systematic sampling technique while the sample universities and respondents were selected through the stratified and purposive sampling techniques. The sample size of 343 respondents was determined through the data saturation method.  In-depth Interview and Focus Group Discussion instruments were utilized to gather in-depth data based on the respondents’ experiences in addition to official reports. The QSR NVivo software was adopted for the deductive thematic analysis of the data. The study found that vertical occupational mobility among university administrators enhances professionalism, effective inter-cadre interface and effective policy implementation in the Registry section of universities. This study concluded that vertical occupational mobility among university administrators has a positive impact on the development of universities.  It is recommended that processes of vertical occupational mobility among university administrators should be encouraged but designed to control for over-population or shortage of competent staff in some sub-cadres in the Registry section of universities. Key Words:  Vertical Occupational Mobility, Development of Universities, Professionalism, Effective Inter-cadre Interface, Effective Policy Implementation. View
7 Title: GENDER AND MENTAL HEALTH.pdf
Author: DEEPTHI BALLA
Abstract: Abstract Gender is a significant term that is used to distinguish individuals according to their physical anatomy. It is also significant in knowing individuals, who could be the victims of psychological vulnerabilities. Review of research on mental health revealed that in both sexes, women are more vulnerable to mental health problems than men. It was  found that the underlying factor for this is the negative emotional factors and personality factors  of women. It  was  also revealed that socialization process and gender roles also contribute to vulnerability among women all over the world. To know more about this gender issues in mental health among general population who do not visit primary health care centers, the investigator took a small sample of 90 individuals belonging to Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam-north coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh who are belonging to the age range of 20  to  59,  using purposive sampling technique. So far researchers who have done research on gender and mental health have used General Health Questionnaire . An attempt is made to use an empirical based valid screening tool i.e., Achenbach’s Adult Self-report for the purpose of data collection. Further statistical analysis is done by using correlation, t-test and coefficience of contingency. Results  revealed  that gender differences were found  in antisocial personality problems.  It showed that the comparison between age and anxious-depressed scale and  between  age  and  attention problems have significant difference. It was found that more people of 20-29 years age group were prone to anxious-depressed problems, attention problems, when compared to other  age groups.  Only for somatic complaints  scale more  people are found to be between the age range of 30-44 years. Keywords: Gender, Mental Health, antisocial problems View
8 Title: THE IMPERATIVES OF A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK IN THE QUEST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE AND POLITICAL STABILITY IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: EKIYOR K. WELSON PhD.
Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the conceptual and theoretical significance and impact of the extrapolation of theories and principles generally in the understanding of the social structure of the Nigerian society in the quest for social justice and political stability. This is accentuated by the observation of thinkers such as Awolowo (1968) that many African leaders in organizing their states ignored the role of theories and Social Science unlike developed democracies such as Europe and America that pattern their societies in line with social and political theories, models and principles. This work is out to show how the application of established theories can rapidly help in developing the Nigerian society beyond the traditional and whimsical practices of the rulers and “strong men”. View
9 Title: REINVENTING PAN AFRICANISM AS AN IDEOLOGICAL IMPERATIVE FOR MANAGING CONFLICTS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICA.pdf
Author: WORDU, STEVEN AFOMA CHIBUEZE
Abstract: Abstract Contemporary Africa, historically depicted is retrogression writ large. The condition of Africa today is a portrait of forbidding situations of failure of state and society that is characterized by extreme poverty, hunger, permanent injustice and perpetual insecurity. The question to ask is why Africa degenerated after independence, into a pariah continent and distracted people that are prone to violent conflicts. This paper explores the role of ideology in interrogating Africa’s underdevelopment crises and rising profile in Afro xenophobia, genocide, political violence and terrorism. Method for this study is extant historicism used to contextualize and encapsulate history of African struggles, while empirical evidences on African conflict profile are obtained from secondary data. The paper argues that Pan Africanism which served as an ideology of mass movement and protest against Racism and Colonialism in the 20th century will serve as an ideological cruncher to mitigate conflicts in contemporary Africa. We suggest that Governments and Universities in Africa support the study of African History and Philosophy through establishing institutes for the study of Pan Africanism to strengthen continental mechanisms for conflict resolution and promotion of African Unity. Keywords: Contemporary Africa, Conflict Management, Terrorism, Afro Xenophobia, Genocide, Political violence, Ideology and Pan Africanism. View
10 Title: GOOD GOVERNANCE PEACE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: EMMANUEL I. WONAH
Abstract: Abstract The paper examined Good Governance, Peace and National Development in Nigeria. The main argument of the paper is that the near absence of good governance erodes peace which encumbers national development in Nigeria. The paper adopted Marxian Political Economy, Frustration-Aggression Theory and democratic elitism as relevant analytical constructs which are capable of expatiating in details the nuances of the subject matter. One of the assumptions of the Marxian political economy is that the capitalist (bourgeoisie) appropriates the surplus value produced by the workers (proletariats) and pays the workers pittance as wages/salaries, thereby exploiting the workers. The continuous exploitation of the workers can be frustrating as the achievement of the goals of the workers becomes a mirage. It is this frustration in achieving expectations in life that leads for aggressive behavior as postulated by the Frustration-Aggression theory. For peace to reign as prompted by good governance there is need for the entrenchment of democratic elitism which assumes that the elites who rule should rule with the interest of the people at heart within the purview of democratic values. The paper relied on secondary sources of data. The paper observed that the nature and character of the Nigerian state as exemplified by its oppressive and antidemocratic tendencies grossly undermines good governance and impedes peace and National Development. It was recommended in the paper, inter alia, that there should be renaissance of the Nigerian state by imbibing and demonstrating democratic culture. Keywords: Good Governance, Peace, National Development, Nigerian State; Democracy. View
11 Title: A MODEL ON FOUR FAMILY FUNCTIONS AND THEIR RELATIONS IN TIME.pdf
Author: ANI BAJRAMI AND ZYRI BAJRAMI
Abstract: Abstract This study takes in consideration ratings about marriage and family and their relation to well-being, children, family harmony and erotical pleasure. We analyzed 212 individuals (students), their parents (241 individuals) and one of their grandfather (179 individuals). The collected data has made possible the construction of a simple mathematical model which analyze the four ratings mentioned above and their relation in time. This mathemathical model is expressed as it follows : E/F = M/ 0,5-H. It shows that during the evolution of human populations, the high ratings of sexual pleasure is in inverse proportion with the desire of having children. For example, grandfathers value the desire of having children 44% while students value this parameter only 25.8%. On the contrary, students value erotical pleasure 28.4% and their parents value this parameter only for15.3%. Keywords: family, well-being, having children, family harmony, erotical pleasure. View
12 Title: QUALITY ANALYSIS AND CONTROL (MANAGEMENT) AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN.pdf
Author: NEEDORN RICHARD SORLE
Abstract: Abstract Organizations are constantly in quest of how to enhance their performance. Performance enhancement defines all the activities and actions undertaking to improve and add value to organizational outcome. It defines all the actual results or outputs of an organization measured against all the predefined goals and objective. It results in increase output, reduced operational time, reduced cost, operational flexibility, improved quality, increased patronage, stakeholder’s satisfaction, and competitive edge. Consequent on the highlighted benefits lots of scholarly works have been advanced on how to enhance performance or sustenance of it. These suggestions and postulations among others include adequate operating environment; effective strategies aimed at increasing output and reducing wastages; process improvement; increased output quality; price reduction and price advantage; change management; and total quality management. Examined management literatures do not consider managing quality as an option for performance improvement. It is this observed lacuna that informed this study; thus, this study differs from every other study on the subject of performance enhancement because it postulates and approaches performance enhancement through quality management techniques and standpoint. Thus, it attempts to seek explanation on how quality management (analysis and control) can be used to enhance performance in the manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Quality Management was measured using input Factor Management; Production Process Control and Customers Focus, while Performance Enhancement was measured using Product Quality and Customers satisfaction, the predictor and criterion variables were moderated by Organizational Structure. To put the work in focus and proper perspective seven null Hypotheses was structured and tested using Structure Equation Modeling, Amos (version 3.34) and Scientific package for social science (version 3.26). The choice of these statistical tools and package is due to their adequacy and appropriateness to the research. Findings and analysis from the hypotheses reveal that hypothesis one to seven was rejected and thus the alternative one accepted since result did not support the positions of the hypotheses. Results of the one to six hypotheses show moderate impact and positive relationship between the examined dimensions of the predictor and the measures of the criterion variables. The hypothesis seven where the moderator was introduced shows a further reduced impact even if it was still positive. Consequent on those findings, three basic recommendations were advanced. Keywords: Enhanced Performance, Quality Management, Input Factors Management, Production Process Control, Customers Focus, Product Quality, Customers Satisfaction, Organizational Structure, Structural Equation Modeling, Scientific Package for Social Sciences View

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