Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2019 Archive

1 Title: FINDING A COMMON WEIGHT VECTOR OF DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS BASED UPON BARGAINING GAME.pdf
Author: MANABU SUGIYAMA AND TOSHIYUKI SUEYOSHI
Abstract: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a mathematical programming method for measuring the relative efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMUs) by evaluating their outputs and inputs. In the history of DEA, the cross-efficiency of jth DMU is widely used as an efficiency measure of a given DMUo among researchers. The approach always utilizes weights related to inputs and outputs in the assessment. Unfortunately, the weights are not always uniquely determined in the cross-efficiency measurement because DEA always suffers from an occurrence of multiple solutions, so indicating an occurrence of multiple weights. To overcome such a difficulty, this paper proposes a new approach for determining a common weight vector of DEA based on bargaining game.  Keywords: Bargaining Game, Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution, Data Envelopment Analysis, Common Weight Vector View
2 Title: RESEARCH OF THE VEHICLE LOAD CONTROL SYSTEM INTEGRATION DEVICE.pdf
Author: JUN LI AND YANZHAO SU
Abstract: With the gradual development of economy, the scale of transportation industry continues to expand. The problem of overload or overrun in the vehicle transport has emerged. Therefore, how simply and conveniently to know the vehicle load and how to effectively limit overload has become a key issue. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of vehicle load control system from the above problems. Through the pressure sensors installed in the vehicle suspension, the single-chip microprocessor receives the information transmitted by the pressure sensors, and calculates the total weight of the vehicle load; if overweight, the single-chip microprocessor will send commands to the ignition system, to stop the ignition system working. Its purpose is to improve vehicle safety and effectively reduce heavy workload of the vehicle detection station to improve their work efficiency. Keywords: vehicle load, pressure sensors, computer control, the ignition system View
3 Title: EXPERIMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF METALLURG CHANGES INDUCED BY LASER WELDING IN AISI304 STAINLESS STEEL.pdf
Author: HEIDE LAMBERTSEN AND MARTIN D. ULRIKSEN
Abstract: Laser-welded joints of stainless steel AISI304 are investigated experimentally to determine the transfor-mation of austenite to martensite during the welding process. This transformation, which occurs in the welded region due to heating and residual stresses, can influence the fatigue and fracture properties of the affected material. Therefore, the scope of the present study is to determine the quantity of introduced martensite in the welded region and hereby clarify the influence of laser welding on the fatigue and fracture properties of welded AISI304 joints. The quantification of martensite concentration is carried out by use of four different methods, namely Lichtenegger and Bloech (LB1) etching, Ferrite scope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Vickers hardness. It is found that a concentration of 1-1.6 % martensite is introduced in the laser-welded area; a quantity that has insignificant influence on the fatigue properties of the joints. Keywords: Metallurgical transformation, Martensitic phase, AISI304, Laser-welded joints. View
4 Title: MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF INDOOR DUST IN RIVERS STATE NIGERIA.pdf
Author: WEMEDO, S. A., BOISA, N., OKO-JAJA, M. B. AND KONNE, J. L.
Abstract: In recent years, since most people spend most of their time inside buildings, increasing attention has been given to the adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of indoor dust. Therefore, this research investigated the microbial load of indoor dust in Rivers State. A total of sixty-nine (69) indoor dust samples were collected from the twenty-three (23) Local Government Areas in Rivers State. Standard Plate Count Method was employed for enumeration and isolation of total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi by spread plating of serially diluted dust samples onto nutrient agar and sabouraud dextrose agar media respectively. Pure cultures of bacteria were characterized and identified by colonial, morphological, and biochemical tests while pure cultures of fungi were identified by macroscopy and microscopy techniques. Results of microbial counts of the Local Government Areas showed that bacterial load was highest in Gokana (23.8x104cfu/g) followed by Akuku-Toru(17.8x104cfu/g), Emohua (15.6 x 104cfu/g), Obio/Akpor, Bonny, Etche and lowest in Andoni (1.5x104cfu/g) with Abua/Odual, Opobo/Nkoro, Tai, Ikwerre, Okrika, Asari-Toru and Ogu/Bolo having low counts. Fungal load was highest in Okrika (6.0 x 103cfu/g) followed by Bonny (4.7 x 103 cfu/g), Akuku-Toru (4.2x103 cfu/g) and Ahoada East; the other LGAs had low fungal load with lowest in Asari-Toru, Oyigbo and Obio/Akpor. Nineteen (19) bacterial species isolated during this study include Bacillus (36.8%), Lactobacillus (26.3%), Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Pandoraea and Staphylococcus (5.3%). Seven (7) fungal species isolated include Aspergillus and Rhizopus (28.6%), Penicillium, Fusarium, and Mucor (14.2%). Percentage frequency for Penicillium which was isolated in nineteen (19) LGA was 30.5% followed by Aspergillus which had 28.8% and was isolated in eighteen (18) LGA.  R. stolonifer and Fusarium recorded the least with percentage frequency of 3.4% each and was also isolated in two LGA. For the bacteria isolates, Paenibacillus chondrotinus ranked the highest with a percentage frequency of 19.3% and was isolated in sixteen (16) LGA which was followed by Bacillus smithii which had 15.6% and was also isolated in thirteen (13) LGA. Least values were observed for Lactobacillus kefiri, Bacillus megaferium and Lactobacillus gilis with a percentage frequency of 1.2% each and was isolated in one (1) LGA. Epidemiological study from 2015-2018 showed that there was an increase in respiratory tract infections in the study area and females tend to be more affected than the males. This study has clearly shown that the inhalation of contaminated indoor dust particles has a direct link to the increase of respiratory tract infections in this study and the results of the study is of public health significance. Key Words: Microbiological, Public health, Indoor dust, Bacteria, Fungi. View
5 Title: SEWER NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING CELLULAR AUTOMATA.pdf
Author: MARYAM ROHANI AND MOHAMMAD HADI AFSHAR
Abstract: The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method is used in this paper for the optimal design of sewer network problems with the fixed layout. The HCA method decomposes the problem into two sub-problems with considering the pipe diameters and nodal cover depths as decision variables. Two stages are solved iteratively for determining the decision variables in a manner to minimize the total cost of the sewer network subject to the operational constraints. The HCA method is used to optimally solve three benchmark examples with different sizes and the results are presented and compared to those of the existing methods. The results indicate that the HCA method is more efficient and effective than the alternative methods. Keywords: Sewer Network, Optimization methods, Cellular Automata, design problem. View
6 Title: DEFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF UNBOUND BASE COURSE DURING A LARGE SCALE MODEL EXPERIMENT.pdf
Author: MAKHALY B. A., MEISSA F. AND OUSTASSE ABDOULAYE
Abstract: This paper evaluates de deflections (measured at the surface and/or at the top of the subgrade) of unbound pavement materials under cyclic loading. Deflections of three base course materials (Bakel Red Quartzite, Bakel Black Quartzite and Diack Basalt) were investigated using a large-scale model experiment (LSME). The LSME is a prototype-scale pavement test apparatus where cyclic loading is applied and deflections are measured. The LSME replicates field conditions and accounts for scale effects. The LSME results showed that the total, plastic and net plastic deflections of a pavement increase progressively as the number of loading cycles increases. The total deflection decreases as the thickness of the base layer increases. Plastics deflections at the top of the subgrade decrease progressively as the thickness of the base layer is increased. The elastic deflections of the surface and of the base layer decrease gradually with the increasing loading cycles. The elastic deflection at the top of the subgrade decreases with increasing thickness of the base layer. So, rutting can be limited by limiting the elastic deflection at the top of the subgrade. However, this criterion does not account for the rutting caused by the unbound base layers and that of the asphalt concrete. Keywords: Deflection, Unbound Base Course, Large Scale Model Experiment View
7 Title: FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT AND COMPUTER SIMULATION OF FIRE SCENARIO IN UNDERGROUND MINES.pdf
Author: STOJANCE MIJALKOVSKI
Abstract: Unsafe working conditions in underground mines have led to a number of accidents, loss of life, damage to property, interruption of production, etc. Safety is essential in mining industry, which in recent years mainly focuses on injury prevention in the workplace through a variety of procedures and employee training. The primary goal of this paper is to present a methodology with systematic analysis to determine the most risky places for fire occurrence in underground mines and using a computer simulation to determine the movement of smoke and fire gases trough underground mining facilities from which depends the safe evacuation of all employees. Keywords: underground mines, fire risk assessment, modeling fire scenarios, computer simulation View
8 Title: BACTERIOTOXINS IN SOUR SOUP.pdf
Author: ORIDIKITORUSINYAA ODIKE AND KEMKA H. OGBONDA
Abstract: The study investigated sour soup for contamination by toxin-producing bacteria and for the presence of bacteriotoxins. It also tried to find out the temperature requirements of the bacteria both for growth and for toxin production. Five (5) different types of soup (Egusi, Ogbono, Vegetable, Okra, and Native), were used. The soups were prepared and left for 24 hours at ambient (room) temperature for them to get sour. The bacteria found to be associated with the sour soups included Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria most commonly involved in the spoilage of the soups were C. jejuni, S. aureus, and Salmonella sp. which had 60% occurrence each. Cl. botulinum, Cl. perfringes, V. parahaemolyticus, Y. enterocolitica, and Shigella sp. had 40% occurrence each; while L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, and E. coli, had 20% occurrence each. The sour soups that were most vulnerable to spoilage  were Ogbono and Native, which had 23% contamination level each, followed by Okra and Vegetable (22% each), and then Egusi (18%). The toxins detected in the sour soups included Bacillus cereus enterotoxin, Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The normal growth temperatures and the temperatures at which toxins were produced by the bacteria, respectively, were: Staphylococcus aureus: 35-370C, 35-400C; Clostridium botulinum: 35-400C, 360C; Bacillus cereus: 30-400C, 320C. All the sour soups contained bacteriotoxins at varying concentrations. This result is of public health interest as it indicates that it is not safe to consume sour soup. Keywords: Bacillus cereus, Bacteria, Bacteriotoxins, Clostridium botulinum, Food-Poisoning, Growth, Sour soup, Staphylococcus aureus, Temperature, Toxins. View
9 Title: NON DESTRUCTIVE MICRO STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF METALLIC SPECIMENS WITH A PORTABLE X RAY DIFFRACTION BASED RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYZER.pdf
Author: D. C. NAGPURE, RAKESH KAUL AND L. M. KUKREJA
Abstract: Non-destructive characterization of surface microstructure of an engineering component is an important parameter to assess its fitness to function in the given service conditions. The paper describes various case studies performed in authors’ laboratory involving use of portable X-ray diffraction based residual stress analysis system to examine and understand the micro-structural state of the investigated surface. A significant decrease in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of gamma(311) diffraction peak from about 4.2° in the cold worked state to about 2.5° in the annealed/surface melted state was recorded for austenitic stainless steel. In case of 0.4% carbon steel there is sharp increase in FWHM of alpha(211) diffraction peak from about 2° in the as received condition to about 5-6° in the laser hardened condition. Crystallographic texture developed during electro-plating of chromium on stainless steel, could be detected from the strong intensity of alpha (211) peak of chromium at about 19° to the surface normal with respect to all other X-ray inclination angles (ѱ) during residual stress measurement. The results show that FWHM and intensity variation of the diffraction peak are two sensitive parameters for characterization of surface microstructure. Change in FWHM has been used to detect machining-induced cold deformation and evolution of re-crystallized grains in austenitic stainless steel and formation of hard martensite in laser transformation hardened ferritic steel. Variation in the intensity of diffracted peak with respect to X-ray inclination angle provided valuable information regarding crystallographic texture in hard chrome plated deposits. Keywords: X-ray diffraction, microstructure, stress measurement, full width at half maximum, texture View
10 Title: CONVENTIONALISM AND ITS REASONED COMPATIBILITY WITH SCIENTIFIC REALISM PERSPECTIVES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE.pdf
Author: CHRISTIAN C. EMEDOLU, PhD.
Abstract: The basic argument of this paper is that conventionalism is part and parcel of scientific enterprise and cannot override scientific realism as such.  In the paper, I argue that this position cannot be challenged unless one wishes to conclude that science is no longer a human enterprise. I insist that to argue, as many conventionalists do,  that truth in science is a matter of convention or community decision of experts is to plunge oneself into an illusion suffered most in the domain of idealism. I espouse the uncommon view that excessive and warped focus on the logico-mathematical language of science makes the conventionalist lose touch with the real contents of science, thinking that form could be used as a substitute for content.  As it stands, the material world as investigated by the experimental scientist must have a role to play in his cognitive operations; that he most times deploys his imaginative fancy is merely a way to seek domination over nature. Bold conjectures are mere designs to entrap nature, and the experimental scientist, precisely as a critical inheritor of natural magic, knows how to set such traps or pose questions to nature. In this inquiry, therefore, I adopt the historiographical method in order to get to the roots of conventionalism, wherein one finds the straight answer to a unique interrogation: Does conventionalism, which is supposed to be an antirealist disposition, truly negate realism in general?  Key words: Conventionalism, Scientific Realism, Compatibility, and Truth View
11 Title: PREDICTIONS OF FUTURE ASPECTS OF THE RAINY SEASON USING SIMPLE AND MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS A CASE STUDY OF CHINGÓME MISSION DAILY RAINFALL DATA IN ZAMBIA URBAN.pdf
Author: NCHIMUNYA HAANKUKU
Abstract: This article demonstrates the point and interval predictions of the dependent variables Y using both simple and multiple linear regression analyses for the given independent X variables. The primary methodology was analysis of quantitative data collected at Chin’gombe mission, northern part of Zambia, weather station for a period of 25 years. The article begins by justifying why a particular approach was used for analysis by testing the available data for randomness. Since, time trends where not evident, a classical approach was adopted which involved the construction of models that reflect the available data as closely as possible. A distribution with two parameters was preferable for greater flexibility, hence, the truncated exponential distribution with two unknown parameters was investigated instead of other distributions such as; lognormal, gamma, or weibull. But the predictions obtained were not particularly informative for agricultural planning, water management, and designing purposes. The article also shows methods of analysis of daily rainfall data using both simple and multiple linear regression analysis and demonstrates how the models derived can be of direct use in agricultural planning, water management and designing. The correlations between the onset and end of rainy season dates were also investigated. The results obtained showed that there is no correlation between the onset and end of rainy season. View

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