Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2018 Archive

1 Title: THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF AYUDHYA KINGDOM.pdf
Author: ANTONIO ANDREW IMANUEL, IWAN TRIYUWONO AND ALI DJAMHURI
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the role of accounting in the golden age of the Ayudhya Kingdom in the 17th century. At that time, Ayudhya was recognized by European countries as a super power in Southeast Asia and even surpassing London and Paris. In order to pay its soldiers, maintaining building, architects, and public officials, Ayudhya needed resources. It encourages author to find out the role of accounting in Ayudhya particularly from the military golden age during the reign of King Naresuan the Great up to the literature golden age during the reign of King Narai the Great. This interpretive case study tries to get a clear configuration of how accounting was posited and practiced in the Ayudhya Kingdom. Most of the research data used in this study are associated with sociology, politics, economics, and also religious beliefs obtained from the publications, such as international journals, reports, relevant researches, magazines, photos, and poetry. Researcher also considered the context and culture to get the full picture of the Ayudhya accounting and tried to interpret the facts with focusing on Ayudhya accounting role and practices in Ayudhya. This research conclude that accounting had plays an important role in the golden age of Ayudhya. Accounting has assisted the development of culture and literature as well as spiritual aspect. Thus it was associated with the development and advancement of Ayudhya in achieving its own golden age in the 17th century and become a new powerful force in Southeast Asia and to have well recognized from European countries at that time. Keywords: Ayudhya, study of text, the role of accounting View
2 Title: IMPACT OF IRON ORE MINING ON HUMAN HEALTH IN KEONJHAR DISTRICT OF ODISHA.pdf
Author: PRIYAMBADA PRADHAN AND SUDHAKAR PATRA, PhD.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the health status of mining people in keonjhar district of Odisha. The study is based on primary data collected from mines worker in Banspal block of Keonjhar district of Odisha, India. Mines have some positive impact, such as employment opportunity and infrastructural development but their impact on health is negative , which can occur through both environmental and occupational health channels. The people closureto the mine is associated with higher incidence of waterborne diseases, typhoid and fever – most likely associated with changes in water quality and distribution, whereas employment in the mines is clearly associated with acute respiratory infections as might be expected from working in dusty conditions with no protection. Thus, a compensation mechanism should be designed in order to achieve a sustainable development in Odisha. Key Words: Disease, Iron ore, Health Impact, Mining, Typhoid. View
3 Title: TIMELINESS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF QUOTED BANKS IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: OGBONNA, GABRIEL N. PhD. AND ABAKASANGA, NSE OKON
Abstract: The study examined the effect of timeliness of accounting information (independent variable) on financial performance (dependent variable) of quoted banks in Nigeria using secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock exchange spanning from 2007 to 2016. Timeliness of accounting information (measured by audit report lag-ARL) was subjected to Hausman test and also regressed against performance variable: Price to earnings ratio -PER, Earnings yield -ENY and Dividend yield –DVY. Findings indicate a positive significant effect of ARL on PER and DVY but with a negative insignificant effect on ENY, implying that an increase in ARL increases PER and DVY but decreases ENY. The study therefore confirms that for relevant and faithfully represented accounting information to be useful such information must be reported on a timely basis. We recommend that Policy makers should look into the audit report lag of quoted banks in Nigeria and formulate policies to enforce compliance with the stipulated filing or reporting requirements. This will assist in boosting investors’ confidence and further strengthens our stock market. Keywords: Timeliness, Accounting information, Financial Performance, Price/ earnings ratio, Earnings yield, Dividend yield, Nigerian Banks View
4 Title: MGNREGA AND ITS IMPACT ON DAILY WAGED WOMEN WORKERS A CASE STUDY OF SONITPUR DISTRICT OF ASSAM.pdf
Author: RIMJHIM BORDOLOI
Abstract: It is common in the developing countries that women are being ignored since pre-historic time. The primary objectives of the research are to study the impact of MGNREGA on women empowerment and to identify the obstacles in the path of the implementation of the scheme. The paper focuses on the Female worker in Sonitpur District of Assam to derive conclusions to highlight the impact of the program on the lives of women. Female workers significant benefit reported by the study includes – income gains, social empowerment, more say in intra household decision making and creation of community assets etc. The paper ends up by identify certain barriers to women is access to MGNREGA. Key Words: MGNREGA, Women Empowerment, Impact of MGNREGA Programme. View
5 Title: TAX ELASTICITY BUOYANCY AND STABILITY IN ZIMBABWE.pdf
Author: NETSAI LIZZY DHORO-GWAENDEPI AND FUNGAYI MAWIRE-VAN STRIEN
Abstract: Tax elasticity and buoyancy estimates are the dynamic tools for measuring the tax performance. The main objectives of the study are to explore the tax system performance of Zimbabwe through the traditional tax ratio trends, dynamic measures tax buoyancy and tax elasticity. The study has applied traditional regression approach and the Dummy Variable Approach to calculate tax buoyancy. For the study period 2000 – 2013, both methods have yielded a tax buoyancy statistic of 1.013 (more than unitary) implying that the tax system is responsive to growth in national income. Using the Dummy Variable Approach, the study revealed that there are no significant differences in tax performance for the Zimbabwean Dollar Era and the Dollarization Era. In an effort to enhance efficiency in government operations, the study has highlighted parastatals inefficiency that need immediate attention. Tax ratio trend has revealed an increase in effort over the dollarization period. Key Words: Tax Buoyancy, Elasticity, Tax Stability, Tax Ratio, Revenue Performance, Parastatal, GDP, Zimbabwe. View
6 Title: OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTIVITY PROCESS THROUGH LINEAR PROGRAMING IN THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: RICHARD SORLE NEEDORN
Abstract: Organizations have always desired either to increase profit or reduce cost. This classical “dual primal” approach by organization has attracted lots of research efforts assessing the merits or otherwise of the approach with several attendant postulations. This paper adopts a some-worth different approach to the contemporary discourse on optimization efforts. Organizations are established to create utilities in exchange for economic gains, thus, carry out one form of commercial activity or the order with profit intents. They produce goods and services, thus, satisfying needs through which income is generated. These economic activities (creation) require factor input conversion. While the conversion that defines production is not in contest, the concern of this work is an in-dept. study to the root of the philosophy of this conversion process and how an understanding of the scarcity and the role of choice sprouting from limited resources can re-define the decision making in terms of maximizing profit or minimizing cost. Thus, the position of this scholarship or the philosophy of the argument this work intends to examine is how the degree of efficient use of scarce resources in the conversion process can explain the output level, cost minimization and profitability. Consequent on the scarce input resources which is given in all economic circumstance, we intend in this study to examine how the available resources can be put to optimum use to achieve desired results - linear programing. To test the existentiality and reality or otherwise of this reasoning, the manufacturing firms in Nigeria was studied. This research work was put in proper perspective by structuring two basic hypotheses from the reviewed literatures on which certain statistical test was conducted. Using Kendell Tau B statistics through the Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.5, some findings were made upon which recommendations were advanced to guide decision making as it pertains to optimization and efficient use of scarce resources.  Keywords: Linear Programming; Decision Variable; Objective Function, Constraints; Optimization; Maximization; Minimization  View
7 Title: LIQUIDITY CORRELATES AND PERFORMANCE OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: ANYALECHI K. CHIKEZIE, IFIONU. EBELE. P., PhD. AND IKECHUKWU S. NNAMDI, PhD.
Abstract: Using data for Deposit Money Banks [DMBs] in Nigeria for the period 1990 to 2017, the study examines liquidity management and evaluates the effect on banks’ performance using their returns on asset [ROA] as a proxy for performance. The researchers empirically tested whether liquidity and other correlated variables [lending rates, exchange rate and non-performing loans] impact on the performance of banks in Nigeria. The study reveals a negative and significant relationship between ROA, liquidity, exchange rate and non-performing loans. The findings further show that interest rate exerted positive but non-significant influence on return on assets. The Johansen cointegration test indicated that the dependent variable and the regressors move together in the long-run, while divergence in long-run equilibrium was being corrected at the speed of 83.41% annually. The Granger causality test results showed that unidirectional causal relationship exist between ROA and LR with causality running from the former to the later, while no causal link exists among ROA, INTR and EXR. We further found that a one-way causal relationship is found to exist between NPL and ROA, with causality running from NPL to ROA without any feedback system. Keywords: liquidity management, bank performance, Liquidity Risk View
8 Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING ON STOCK MARKET IN PAKISTAN.pdf
Author: MAHBOOB RABBANI AND ANAM JAVED
Abstract: The stock market is an economic institution that promotes the growth and development of the economy of a nation. This paper investigated the impact of inflation on stock market performance .The aim of this research to find out factors which have great impact on stock market performance of any country. This study discusses the main variable like interest rate and inflation rate and their effect on stock market performance. This study investigated that interest and inflation rate has significant negative relation with stock market performance, while in regression analysis it has been observed that the value of R2 = 0.62 means model is fit and can predict outcome. This study provides valuable knowledge to the government, economist and shareholders to jug the position of stock market for investment purpose. Keywords: Stock Market Performance, Inflation Rate, Interest Rate View
9 Title: INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ASSOSA ZONE ETHIOPIA.pdf
Author: KEMAL ABDURAHIM AHMED
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate instructional leadership practices in secondary schools of Assosa zone, Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia. In order to address the objectives of the study, a cross sectional descriptive survey method was employed. The population of the study was 266 teachers and 12 principals. From this number of population, 141 teachers and 12 principals were used as a sample using simple random and comprehensive sampling techniques respectively. Data collected from respondents was analyzed and interpreted using Percentage, one sample t-test, and weighted mean. The finding revealed that, among instructional leadership functions, instructional leaders’ role in communicating school goals, supervision and evaluation of instruction, monitoring of school progress, protection of instructional time, maintaining high visibility, are promoting professional development seemed to be at a level near to average. Whereas, coordination of the curriculum, providing incentive for teachers, and incentive for students were significantly low performed. Based on findings it is concluded that, instructional leadership practices in the zone seem to be deprived. On top of the findings, recommendations are forwarded to address the weaknesses encountered by the principals in their instructional leadership activities mainly focusing on empowering both principals and schools to foster instructional leadership practices in the secondary schools of the zone. View
10 Title: FINANCIAL PRUDENCE AND FRUGALITY IMPACT ON PROFITABILITY OF NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY ENUGU NIGEIRA).pdf
Author: OGBOLE, FRIDAY OGBOLE, PhD. AND ONAH, KINGSLEY CHUKWUEBUKA
Abstract: The study investigates the impact of financial prudence and frugality on the profitability of manufacturing firms using Nigeria Bottling Company, Enugu, as a case study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data, based on a five-point likert scale. Financial prudence and frugality (FPF),the main explanatory variable, was measured by budget preparation(BGP), adherence to budget preparation(ABG), cost-benefit analysis(CBA), cost control (CC),and efficient application of cost control techniques(EFA).Profitability, the dependent variable was measured using return on capital employed(ROCE). Correlation analysis and ordinary least square multiple regression analysis and were used to analyses the data. The result shows that while budget preparation had a significant positive effect on profitability adherence to the budgets prepared tends to exert a significant but negative impact on profitability. The other explanatory variables had no significant effect on profitability. It is recommended that to enhance financial prudence and frugality, manufacturing firms should prepare budgets to guide and minimize costs and expenses, yet adherence to these budgets should be flexible  to make provision for eventualities and realistic circumstances in their implementation, with a view to enhancing profitability. KEY WORDS : Financial Prudence, Frugality, Profitability View
11 Title: A STUDY ON SERVICES QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN DIRE DAWA ETHIOPIA A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BANKS.pdf
Author: UBAH ADEM AND PROF. M. SARADA DEVI
Abstract: This study compares the perception of customers’ about service quality of the public and private commercial banks in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. This study is a questionnaire survey based on the combined and modified SERVQUAL by Parasuraman et al. (1988) and Banking Service Quality (BSQ) Scale by Bahia and Nantel (2000). It included nine service quality dimensions, with 35 statements, to measure and compare the wide range of services offered by Ethiopian public and private banks. A total of 500 questionnaires were administered and data was collected by stratified random sampling to customers of the two banking sectors and 488 were used for analysis purpose (243 public and 245 private). Comparison was done by using mean of nine dimensions that were used to measure the customers’ perceptions and independent samples t-test was used to explore the differences in the mean values of services quality dimensions between the two groups of customers (public banks’ customers and private banks’ customers). The mean result reveals that private banks outperform public banks in terms of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, effectiveness and price dimensions. Moreover, the result of hypotheses test shows there are significant differences in perception between customers of the Ethiopian public and private banks regarding the responsiveness, assurance, empathy, effectiveness, and price dimensions as indicators of service quality. Keywords: Public Bank, Private Bank, Services quality, Customers’ Perceptions View
12 Title: FORENSIC ACCOUNTING AND FRAUD RISK FACTORS THE INFLUENCE OF FRAUD DIAMOND THEORY.pdf
Author: RABI’U ABDULLAHI AND NOORHAYATI MANSOR
Abstract: Fraud has become a global phenomenon which attracts the attention of the world’s business organizations towards using the services of forensic accountants in or order to identify the fraud risk factors so as to detect and prevent fraud occurrences. This paper aimed to identify the fraud risk factors by forensic accountants with the effect of FDT. The use of FDT by forensic accountants will eliminate the phobia of fraud incidences in organizational settings and equally shaped the organization’s thinking to develop a sound and effective detection and preventive measures. The paper generally reviewed literatures which take the nature of conceptual approach. The information used for the study was obtained from journal articles, textbooks and the internet. Therefore, the discussion of the fraud risk factors will immensely contributes to the understanding of FDT and fraud red flags especially by the government, forensic accountants, auditors, fraud examiners and other anti-fraud bodies as well as the private business owners. The study also serves as guidance for further fraud related research. Keywords: Fraud, white collar crime theory, fraud triangle, fraud diamond, forensic accounting, red flags View

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