Dr Reiko Journals

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REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2019 Archive

1 Title: APPLYING FINANCIAL EFFICIENCY TO MITIGATE SYSTEMIC RISK.pdf
Author: MUHAMMAD SHUJAT SALEEM AND IMAM-UD-DIN, PhD.
Abstract: The main intent of the study is to ascertain the degree of financial efficiency in the product of Murabaha financing of Islamic banks vis-a-vis interest based short term business loan of conventional banks; so that the tools of Islamic Macro-prudential policy related to risk associated with Murabaha financing may be formulated and implemented along with the tools of Conventional Macro-prudential policy. Survey strategy is used to collect primary data through structured close ended questionnaires from the sample of 422 loan customers and 120 Murabaha customers of both the conventional and Islamic banks operating in Karachi, Pakistan. Similarly, 178loan officers of conventional banks and 98 Murabaha officers of Islamic banks were also inquired through the same strategy. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analyze the data and the same is tabulated by use of frequency tables. The study finds that the financial efficiency of Murabaha financing is more than that of conventional interest based loan by 28% in the opinion of Murabaha and loan officers and by 6.5% in the perspective of Murabaha and loan customers. The study, therefore, suggests that the tools of both the conventional and Islamic Macro-prudential policies may be similar to certain extent but should not be the same. Keywords: Murabaha financing, Financial efficiency, Systemic risk, Interest based loan, Islamic Macroprudential policy. View
2 Title: THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON THE PROFITABILITY OF PUBLIC & PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL BANKS.pdf
Author: SAMINA RIAZ, MUHAMMAD FURQAN AND SOHAIB SOHAIL SIDDIQUE
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of advertising on the profitability of commercial banks over the period of 2008- 2012, in the presence of control variables: Credit risk, Operating Efficiency, total advances to total deposits, total loans to total assets and Size(total assets) ratio. Bank’s profitability is measured in terms of return on equity (ROE) .The data has been obtained from the publications of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) and commercial banks. The regression results confirm the positive and significant effects of advertising expenditure on ROE for private sector banks than public sector banks. Keywords: ROE, ROA, Advertising, Credit Risk, Operating Efficiency, Bank Deposits & Advances View
3 Title: IMPACT OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP STYLES AND TEACHER QUALITY ON TEACHER PRODUCTIVITY.pdf
Author: JOHN OLAKITAN ODUNLAMI, HASSAN ALI, PhD. AND SHAHIBUDIN BIN ISHAK, PhD.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to predict teacher productivity from principal leadership styles and teacher quality using social learning and full range leadership theories as the foundation. This is a relationship research that used both correlational and regression design. The study involved 344 participants made up of 305 teachers and 39 vice principals from 39 secondary schools in Lagos state, southwest, Nigeria, through systematic random sampling. The research instruments were the MLQ-6S for teachers’ ratings of their perception of principal leadership styles on a 5 scale Likert behavior scale of 1= never, 2=rarely 3=sometimes, 4= frequent and 5= always; teacher quality assessment questionnaire TQAQ and teacher productivity questionnaire TPQ that were both rated by the vice principals on a scale of level of agreement or disagreement in which 1= strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree and 5= strongly agree. Data collected from responses to questionnaires were entered into the SPSS software first to clean up the data and also to ensure it complied with the requirements of multivariate analysis. Next was exploratory factor analysis for data reduction and to establish construct validity of the research instruments. The results of the factor analysis returned the factorability of all study variables and the scale of measurement of research instruments showed acceptable alpha coefficient of reliability (α) ranging from .594 to .924. Thereafter, correlation analysis was undertaken, followed later by multiple regression. Correlation returned a verdict of strong and positive relationship between each of transactional leadership styles and teacher productivity (r=.488, p=.000) and a low and negative correlation between teacher quality and teacher productivity (r=.186, p=.000, The results of multiple regression indicated that transformational leadership TFL (β =-.118, t=-2.111 p=.036) is significantly related to teacher productivity only at 95% significant level and not at 99% significant level. But transactional leadership TSL (β = .524, t=8.288, p=.000) significantly predicted teacher productivity in a positive manner at both 95% and 99% significant level. However, teacher quality TQ (β =048, t=-.758, p= .449) is not significantly related to teacher productivity in a positive manner. The implications of the findings of this research is that transactional leadership style better predicts teacher productivity than transformational leadership style and that teacher quality doesn’t translate automatically into teacher productivity. This confirms that there is need for school principals to monitor instruction supervision to ensure quality teaching and learning. because it is classroom practice of a teacher that matters. One thing is for a teacher to have the required knowledge, it is another for him to effectively pass it on to the pupils to the extent of making them achieve academic success as he/she provides evidence of teaching productiveness. Keywords: Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, teacher quality and teacher productivity View
4 Title: BUBGETARY CONTROL AND CAPITAL EXPENDITURE OF MICRO FINANCE BANKS EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA.pdf
Author: OLAGUNJU, ADEBAYO, PhD.
Abstract:  This study examines the influence of budgetary control on capital expenditure of Micro Finance banks in Nigeria.. The population of the study consists of 501 staff of the selected Micro Finance Banks in Nigeria, from which a sample of 459 staff was selected, using simple random sampling technique. 459 copies of questionnaire were administered. The survey design was adopted .The hypothesized statements were tested using Pearson Correlation. The findings revealed that the ever changing business environment has made it necessary the need for organization to develop and implement budgets, to ensure this, the financial year and major objectives of the organization must be considered; also budgets are normally communicated to all staff on regular basis for proper and quick accomplishment of goals. The study concluded that strict budgeting and budgetary control measures are therefore required if an organization must achieve its sets goals and objectives Key words: Micro finance Banks, budgetary process, capital expenditure, budgetary control View
5 Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC PLANS AND PERFORMANCE OF SACCOS IN NYERI COUNTY KENYA.pdf
Author: AHMED MOHAMEDYARE ABDIKARIM AND PAUL WAITHAKA, PhD
Abstract: Despite the market forces the co-operatives societies in Kenya have continued to flourish in membership and size. In the current open global economy, saving and credit co-operatives (SACCOs) just like other financial institutions in the private sector must endeavor to be effective in offering proficient services in order to attract and maintain their members. This has forced SACCOs to develop strategic plans as a roadmap to ensure sustained SACCO performance. This study aimed to establish the effect of implementation of strategic plans on SACCOs’ performance in Nyeri County, Kenya. Particularly, the study examined effect of leadership style, organizational structure, human resource management, and information communication technology on performance of SACCOs in Nyeri County, Kenya. The study employed explanatory research design. The target population for this study comprised of 36 SACCOs in Nyeri County. Due the size of target population, a census was conducted where all SACCOs were included in the study. Structured questionnaires were used for primary data collection. Descriptive, inferential analysis was used to analyze quantitative data while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The study found that democratic leadership endeavored to promote team spirit among the workers as well as encouraging team work while empowering individual employees. The study found that SACCOs’ management slightly involved junior teams in development of strategic plans. The study also found that human resource department in most SACCOs recognized and conducted rapid promotions for exemplary performance among the SACCOs employees. The study found that majority of the SACCOs had adopted and enhanced ICT culture across all departments in their SACCOs. However, the study found that majority of the SACCOs marketed their services to the local Kenyan market. The study concludes that quality of human resource management is important for success of SACCOs. The study concludes that adoption of appropriate Information Communication Technology not only promotes internal efficiency but also enhances external competitiveness by providing SACCOs with a platform to market their service to the global market. The study recommends that the SACCOs regulatory body should develop a guideline for SACCOs on organization structure and help them implement over a period. The SACCOs regulatory body should enforce recruitment of qualified human resource management to ensure the functions of the HR are not overlooked. Keywords: Strategic plan, human resource process, information technology leadership style and organizational structure View
6 Title: CREATING A CULTURE OF ADAPTIVE ACCOUNTABILITY IN AN ORGANIZATION.pdf
Author: ABU-HUSSAIN JAMAL AND OLEG TILCHIN
Abstract: The three-step method for creating a culture of adaptive accountability in an organization is proposed. It is aimed to promote adaptation of taking accountability of employees for the changes in a work environment. The changes are engendered by variability of the organization’s objectives. The dynamic work environment is formed in the first step. It includes determination of the needed actions corresponding with the current objective of the organization, the action structure, and the actions-relevant skills, the difficulties in performance of the actions, and the extents of accountability for the actions that are correlated with the actions’ difficulties. Adaptation of taking accountability of employees for the actions to their aspiration and readiness to perform the actions is realized through a coordinated self-evaluation process in the second step. The employees evaluate their aspiration and readiness to perform the actions by examination of individual skills and the work environment. Aspiration of the employee to perform the action is induced by the condition implying more compensation for the action having the more extent of accountability. Readiness of the employee to perform the action is evaluated on the basis of the degree of difference between employee skills and the action-relevant skills. Adjustment of the employees’ compensations to their accountability for the actions is fulfilled by taking into consideration the extents of accountability for the actions in the third step. Keywords: Adaptive accountability, a culture of accountability View
7 Title: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) INFRASTRUCTURE AND DELIVERY QUALITY OF NIGERIAN PORTS AUTHORITY A PANACEA FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.pdf
Author: OLUMATI, I. F. AND OZURU, HENRY N., PhD.
Abstract: The study adopts a survey research method with a sample size of 240 from the selected 40 shipping and export companies in the records of NPA Port Harcourt. After data cleaning, 229 copies of questionnaire were found valid for analysis using Kendall’s tau_b Correlation Coefficient with aid of SPSS version 21.1. Amongst the findings are that e-payment solution and reliability of NPA service delivery quality had the highest positive correlation at coefficient of 0.881. The paper concludes that information technology infrastructure cannot be bypassed in the development and quality service delivery of Nigerian Ports Authority and recommends amongst others that more favourable IT policies should be formulated and implemented as to encourage the port services since findings show that IT infrastructure is needed for quality service delivery to be attained. Keywords: Delivery quality, E-Ship Entry Notice, E-payment solution, Information Technology, IT Infrastructure View
8 Title: IMPACT OF CONTRIBUTORY PENSION SCHEME AND PENSION FUND MANAGEMENT ON RETIREES WELLBEING IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of Sigma Pension Nigeria Plc. Osogbo Nigeria).pdf
Author: LAWRENCE ADEMOLA IBIYEMI, PhD. AND ZAINAB ADEBISI OGUNBODE
Abstract: This project work examined the impact of contributory pension scheme and pension fund management on retirees wellbeing with Sigma Pension Nigeria Plc. Data were collected using primary and secondary methods. For secondary data, information was gathered from text books, magazines, educational bulletin, journals, research projects and author’s knowledge of the subject matter.  For primary data, one hundred (100) questionnaires were administered to  the staff of Sigma Pension Nigeria Plc. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation and Regression at 0.01 Level of significance using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). The result revealed that the Contributory Pension scheme was significantly related to retirees’ well-being [r(99) = 0.783, p<0.01]. Also proved that pension fund management was significantly related to retirees’ well-being [r (99) = 0.632, p<0.01]. The result further revealed that between in scores for males (M=1.44, SD= 0.24) and females [M=1.48, SD=0.21; t(99)=0.905, p>0.05]. also proved that Marital Status was significantly related to retirees’ well-being [r (99) = 0.301, p<0.01]. It is concluded that contributory pension has contributed to pension fund management and that contributory pension scheme is significantly influence the wellbeing of retirees in Sigma Pension Nigeria Ltd. Several recommendations were made among which was that: organization should establish a well define pension fund management thereby promoting organization performance, Organizations must employ managers who are capable and possess the require pension fund management capabilities to improve performance of the organization, Keyword: Contributory Pension, Pension Scheme, Pension Fund Management, Organizational Performance, Sigma Pension Nigeria Limited. View
9 Title: RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYEE COUNSELING SERVICES AND PERFORMANCE OF NGOS IN KENYA.pdf
Author: MARY OMONDI, PhD. AND ROBERT MABELE, PhD.
Abstract: Employee performance is key to the success of many organizations. This service is normally provided by the human resources in that organization. Corporate leaders of business organizations provide employee welfare services among them employee counseling services as a way of either motivating their employees to improve their productivity. However, little information is known about such as employee counseling services by all the stakeholders in NGOs. The primary purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between employee welfare services and performance in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were: to assess the influence of employee counseling services on performance in NGOs in Kenya. The study is likely to aid the NGOs management boards, policy makers in government, human resource professionals and scholars and researchers in policy formulation for employee counseling services in order to improve performance in NGOs in Kenya. The study employed both correlational and descriptive survey designs. The fundamental model shaping this study was the linear regression model. The target population of the study was 14,283 employees in NGOs in Kenya. The sample size of the study was 372 respondents comprising junior management at 242, middle management at 97 and top management staffs at 33 chosen by simple random stratified sampling technique. Primary data was collected using both questionnaires and interviews. The data was analyzed using the Statistical packages for social sciences (version 23). The main findings of the study indicated that employee welfare practices such as employee counseling services influenced performance of NGOs in Kenya. The study also found that 81% of performance in NGOs in Kenya was explained by the independent variables of the study such as employee economic support, recreational facilities at work place, employee counseling services and social support. Finally, the study also contributed to theory and knowledge for humanity. However, the study found that the most significant factor influencing performance of the NGOs in Kenya was employee social support with P- Value at 0.439, followed by employee economic support with P- Value at 0.372, recreation facilities with P- Value at 0.358 and lastly employee counseling with PValue at 0.208. The study had limitations, that is, the respondents were not consistent and the sample size of the study was limited in scope. The study concluded that employee welfare practices such as employee counseling services had a significant positive relationship with performance in NGOs in Kenya and recommended that a policy on other employee welfare practices such as grievance cells and suggestion schemes be considered and adopted by NGO management boards. This is likely to motivate employees to work better and with determination to enhance performance in NGOs in Kenya. Keyword: Employee counseling, performance View
10 Title: THE TRAJECTORY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ORGANIZATION THROUGH CAPACITY PLANNING IN FAST FOOD FIRMS IN NIGERIA.pdf
Author: NEEDORN RICHARD SORLE
Abstract: Abstract. The effectiveness of organizational operation is a critical desire. Effectiveness defines the extent to which the set organizational objectives are met. It is the extent to which an organization achieves its predetermined goals. It measures how well the services or output of a firm meet the desired outcome. Thus, it is a measure of outcome against stated objective. Given this standpoint therefore effectiveness of firms can be viewed as the bedrock of successes of firms. It plays a major role in the volume of output and service delivery, profitability, sustainability, and competitiveness of the firm. The effectiveness of firms boosts the economic wellbeing and enhances the financial position of the organization. Given the numerous benefits, contributions to organizations in achieving desired goals and growth, scholars have advanced several models, theories and postulations on how to sustain effectiveness or enhance it as a trajectory to organizational performance and growth. In the light of its importance, lots of scholarly works have been advanced on how to enhance the effectiveness of firms. However, from the volumes of work reviewed so far one of the issues that has been least discussed is from the perspective of capacity planning. It is this observed lacuna and the important role that effectiveness plays in the life of every organization that informed this study; thus, this study differs from every other study on the subject of organizational effectiveness because it postulates and approaches effectiveness from capacity planning standpoint. Thus, it attempts to seek explanation on how capacity planning can be used to enhance effectiveness in the fast-food firms in Nigeria. Capacity planning was measured using equipment/facility planning; capacity scheduling; and capacity utilization while effectiveness was measured using reduced production cost and timely delivery (timeousness); the predictor and criterion variables were moderated through Technology. To put the work in focus and proper perspective seven null Hypotheses was structured and tested using Structure Equation Modeling using Amos (version 3.34) and Scientific package for social science (version 3.26). The choice of these statistical tools and package is due to their adequacy and appropriateness to the research. Findings and analysis from the hypotheses reveal that hypothesis one to seven was rejected and thus the alternative one accepted since result did not support the positions of the hypotheses. Consequent on those findings seven basic recommendations were advanced. Keywords: Capacity Planning, Equipment/facility Planning, Capacity Scheduling, Capacity Utilization, Effectiveness, Timeousness, Reduced Operational Cost, Technology, Structural Equation Modelling. View

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