Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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2019 Archive

1 Title: FROM CITIZEN TO CYTIZEN HOW TO ESCAPE FROM CYBERSTATES.pdf
Author: GUIDO VERSTRAETEN AND WILLEM W VERSTRAETEN
Abstract: The Modern Western state is characterized by unmediated individual access to wellness, health, safety and liberal human rights. The Newtonian conception of space and time makes formal room for a discursive public area with the citizen and the public institutes in the margin, while participation and ethical responsibility is a prejudice of good citizenship. It is a necessary condition of consistency and coherence of the nation. To date, global migration and multiculturalism threaten those necessary basic conditions of Western states´ political equilibrium. To challenge the actual global phenomena national states transform into virtual places of fear dominated by cybernetics, digital bureaucracy while citizen’s identity is mirrored by the efficiency and unisexual beauty ideal of cyborgs. The substantive conception of technology is government’s tool box to realize the cyberstate while citizen reduce to “cytizen”. In order to escape from this global grey, we propose a different conception of space and time namely the Leibnizian conception of pluralistic independent participating worlds. Moreover, we modify Leopold’s Land-Ethics by introducing the transpersonal identification claim of Warwick Fox inside the common Land so-called eco-homeland while the care for the foreigner serves as paradigmatic core attitude to all participants of the eco-homeland. So we constitute a common eco-refuge, similar to the ideas of Bookchin´s eco-anarchistic ideas but avoiding his dialectic ideal conception of the Land and its participants. Keywords: modern nation, oikophobia, cytizen, cyberstate, Homeland-Anarchism View
2 Title: GENDER EQUITYIN SCIENCE THE GLOBAL CONTEXT.pdf
Author: SANDRA L. HANSON, MARY SYKES AND LUIS BERNETH PENA
Abstract: This paper explores gender equity in science education and occupations in a global context. Research on the development of all science talent is critical given the importance of diversity for science and the increased demand for well-trained technical workers, scientists, and engineers. Although women are under-represented in most science systems around the world, some countries have been more successful in creating gender equity than others. We use cross-national data from multiple sources to examine gender equity in science at various points in the science pipeline. We also focus on patterns of equity in science across diverse political and socio-economic settings. Findings show gender inequity in science education and (especially) occupations worldwide. Countries where women are doing the best on early science indicators do not tend to include the United States and Scandinavian countries. They also are not limited to countries with higher GNP per capita or higher percent women in Parliament. GNP and percent women in Parliament are better predictors of gender access later in the pipeline. Given these geographic patterns, we provide recommendations and a sample map for using a spatial approach to examining gender equity in science in a global context. Keywords: gender, science, global View
3 Title: THE POET AS ENVIRONMENTALIST AN ECOCRITICAL STUDY OF NIYI OSUNDARE’S THE EYE OF THE EARTH.pdf
Author: EMEKA IKECHI AND UBOKIKWAN GABRIEL OGBOLOGWUNG
Abstract: This examines the environmentalist perspective of Niyi Osundare’s The Eye of the Earth. The findings of the research reveal that Osundare uses his artistry to join the contemporary environmentalists’ crusade for the need to urgently preserve the earth, especially, from global warming and ozone layer depletion, caused by human factors such as industrial activities and technological advancement. The research further reveals that poetry is a veritable tool for environmental advocacy, especially, to the global audience. Ecocriticism is a literary critical tool that studies literature as it relates to environment. The research recommends that, like Osundare, creative artists and other professionals should redirect their intellectual ingenuity and professional engagements to joining the indispensable crusade and fight for the safeguarding of the fragile earth, the sustainer of human existence. Professional literary critics are also urged to look at creative works the ecocritical perspectives, in order to unearth ecological issues inherent in such works, so as to highlight their thematic imports to the ordinary reader as well as the target global audience. View
4 Title: TRICHOMONIASIS THE UNDERESTIMATED SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION.pdf
Author: DENNIS G. FISHER, PhD. AND GRACE L. REYNOLDS, PhD.
Abstract: This study interviewed 2,272 women from a low income community in California, USA who completed a questionnaire entitled Risk Behavior Assessment that captured risky drug and sexual behavior. The logistic regression model included gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, warts, crack, and sex trading for money as well as racial and ethnic differences. It was evident that Trichomonas Vaginalis can co-exist with other infections among women who use illicit drugs and engage in risky sexual behavior. It can serve as an early indicator to prompt healthcare providers to test for the presence of STI co-infection that can be potentially fatal if not diagnosed and treated. Keywords: Trichomonas Vaginalis, sexually transmitted infections, drugs, sexual behaviors. View
5 Title: CHRISTIAN TOPOGRAPHY OF BYZANTINE GAZA.pdf
Author: MOAIN SADEQI
Abstract: The important geo-strategic location of Gaza on the road between Asia and Africa made it acquire an extraordinary military, economic and spiritual importance throughout history. It was settled since the 5th millennium BC through the following historic periods. Gaza was depicted on the Byzantine mosaic map of Madaba as the second largest cities after Jerusalem. Saint Hilarion, who born in the village of Thabatha, Gaza, in 291 introduced monasticism into Palestine and built the first monastery approximately seven kilometers south of the city of Gaza. Constantine the Great rewarded the inhabitants of Maioumas, the seaport of Gaza, for their early adoption of Christianity by elevating it to the status of a “polis”. By the edict of the Byzantine emperor Arcadius paganism was eliminated in Gaza and a church was built in 407. Soon Gaza became important in the early Christian world attracting people to settle at a series of villages mentioned in the literature, depicted on the Madaba map and excavated within the present borders of the Gaza Strip. Keywords: Gaza, Byzantine Gaza, Gaza archaeology, Gaza history, Gaza mosaics, Gaza Christianity, Saint Hilarion, Saint Porphyry, monasticism, churches. View
6 Title: COGNATES AMONG THE KARO ALAS AND GAYO LANGUAGES.pdf
Author: ARON MEKO MBETE
Abstract: This study is specifically concerned with description of cognates among the Karo, Alas, and Gayo languages and was conducted in three regencies: Karo, Alas and Gayo. The Karo is one of regencies in North Sumatera Province while the rest are part of Aceh; however, the three share the same borders. Data for this study were gathered among the native speakers. The comparative method is used here and the technique of lexicostatistics is also adopted. On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that quantitatively there were close relations of kinship attributed to the cognate percentages by 73% between the Karo and Alas, by 43.5% between the Karo and Gayo, and by 52.5% between Alas and Gayo. The split time between Karo and Alas was predicted to be around 0,729 thousands of years ago. This means that Alas became a single language at around 0,729 thousands of years ago. The split time between Karo and Gayo was thought to be 1,926 thousands of years ago, meaning that Gayo became an independent language at about 1,926 thousands of years ago. The split time between Alas and Gayo was around 1,484; this means that Gayo was considered a single language at around 1,484. Keywords: cognates, time separation, relation, Karo, Alas, Gayo. View
7 Title: THE PATRIARCHY AND THE AFRICAN WOMAN’S STRUGGLE FOR IDENTITY IN RAPHAEL EDOOKUE’S PLAY AGAINST HER RIGHT.pdf
Author: TAMBARI DICK, PhD. AND JOSEPH ABUH
Abstract: Most harmful traditions and cultures in Africa stand against our development both individually and collectively as a people. The ever developing and never developed syndrome in African nations is not unconnected with the limiting tendencies that our traditions portend. The growth of every nation is measured on the growth of the women folks that constitute the larger population of most nations globally. The limitation has been very devastating on our collective psyche. The dramaturgy of Edookue Raphael’s Against Her Right, x-rays the excruciating pain and trauma that the girl child is subjected to in a typical African society and her struggle to break free from the stranglehold of such obnoxious tradition in which she is, by the patriarchal setting, to be subservient to her male siblings. The African woman remains the sole victim of most patriarchal traditional practices which deny her acquiring good education and skills that could enhance her social, economic and mental freedom. Key Words: Patriarchal, Tradition, Freedom, Victim, Sira View
8 Title: EDUCATION AS THE BEDROCK FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.pdf
Author: ODIKE EBENEZER LEVI, PhD.
Abstract: This study investigates Education as the bedrock of National Development. Hence, Education is presented as an instrument used for the development of human beings in the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and psycho-productive domain. Education is recognized, believed and affirmed as a catalyst for achieving socio-economic, scientific and Technological development. The aim of this study includes identifying and presenting other potentials that transmits and transforms an individual to be useful, meaningful and valuable to the society. Descriptive research design is the approach to this study. The study emphasizes on Education as the heart of National development and the source of quality human capital development that will propel Nigeria to be among the top economics in the world. The study further states immense contributions of education to National development which includes providing the culture of productivity by enabling individuals to discover and unlock their latent, creative potentials aiming at improving efficiency of personal and societal efforts. Also, the training of individuals to relate and interact with others in the society and appreciating the importance of human interconnectivity to enable them accomplish common goals and achieve national unity. The study identifies and discusses constraints to effective implementation of Educational policies in Nigeria which includes insufficiency of funds for implementing Educational policies in Nigeria, reliable data not being a popular feature in planning Education in Nigeria. Arising from the above constraints the study recommends amongst others the entrenchment of Education as a non-negotiable right of every citizen in the constitution as it would help check corruption in that sector. View
9 Title: EXPLORING HOW COLLEGE MAGAZINES FRAME SCIENCE A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HARVARD MAGAZINE AND KU (KOREA UNIVERSITY) TODAY.pdf
Author: HWALBIN KIM, CHRISTOPHER FREAR AND JU-YONG HA
Abstract: This study explores how two college magazines – Harvard Magazine and KU Today – frame scientific research. Based on previous framing studies, this study examines the organizing themes and issue attributes in two college magazines that are published in different cultural, social, and organizational contexts. Using framing theory, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of science stories. The findings show that Harvard Magazine more often framed science as an issue of progress while KU Today most frequently portrayed science as a matter of convergence and communication. Also, the findings indicate that two college magazines mainly framed science and the universities as useful for human advancement. This study indicates that the collectivism or authority centered culture of Korea might affect which attributes were highlighted. Keywords: college magazine, Harvard Magazine, KU Today, framing, science communication. View
10 Title: THE REGULATION OF THE PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN THE EUROPEAN AND HUNGARIAN MEDIA LAW.pdf
Author: KLÁRA, GELLÉN, PhD.
Abstract: In the 2007/65 Directive of audiovisual media services (in codified version 2010/13 EU directive: AVMSD) a new media policy of the European Union appeared. One of the main aims of the regime was to provide a more liberal and flexible legislation for advertisements and other similar commercial messages. Accordingly, the burdens on the publication of commercials have eased, new ways and forms of publication have been introduced, and it has become possible to place open commercial content simultaneously with the edited content or programmes, as well. Related to the formerly mentioned publication possibility, a popular and widespread commercial communication form has been introduced overseas, called product placement. In contrast to other commercial publications, in this case, commercial content appears embedded in the plot of the programme. The viewer’s directly meet the commercial content when seeing the programme, they have no opportunity to avoid the content. This study wishes to discuss what kind of media political debates preceded the introduction of product placement: the arguments for and against will be detailed. The kind of concept appears in the Directive and what minimum rules the Union has, will also be discussed. As the formerly mentioned form of communication was earlier regarded surreptitious by the media law, the demarcation criteria in particular will also be discussed. This study aims at the presentation of the member states’ reactions to this new institution, how the community provisions have been implemented, whether the member states have created and applied more rigorous and detailed regulations, in case they have, what kind of unique solutions they have applied. Accordingly, both the union regulations and the regulations of the particular member states concerning the publication of product placement will be analyzed in order to present their specific solutions. Keywords: AVMSD, harmonization, commercial communication, product placement, surreptitious advertising View
11 Title: DRUGS ABUSE AND CRIME RATE AMONG YOUTHS IT’S IN OKIRIKAH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (OKIRIKAH COMMUNITY).pdf
Author: DANIEL URANTA, PhD.
Abstract: This specifically delved into the social process involving drug abuse and crime rate in Okirikah Local Government Area of Rivers State. The research study is based on the four objectives, they include: to find out the group of drugs that are commonly abuse by youths, to find out the causes for youth involvement on drug abuse and crime rate, to investigate the level of drugs, its consequences which basically is crime rate, to identify measures aimed at eradicating drugs abuse and crime rate among youth in Okirikanah. The sample size use for this study is 100 youth in the community and its sampling techniques adopted was the analytic research design. The population of the study was made up of the entire youths in Okirikanah city Instrument such as questionnaire was used in getting data from respondent. Frequency table and percentage were used to analyze the data and hypothesis was tested with chi – square method. The result of the findings shows that a taste for quick wealth, close friends, wrong company, ignorance, environment, mass media, desired to fit into group, to gain power, low self-esteem. Therefore, it is recommended that drug education and enlightenment will help in reducing tile demand for drugs. We also advocate for recreational facilities, rehabilitation and treatment centres. Keywords: drugs, Abuse, crime, rape and addiction View
12 Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF MINIMUM WAGE POLICY IN MALAYSIA MANUFACTURING EMPLOYERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TRAINING PROVISION AND FRINGE BENEFITS.pdf
Author: SAMIHAH KHALIL
Abstract: Pay and fringe benefits are the highest form of reward for workers. The main aim of the minimum wage policy in Malaysia is to ensure the workers receive ‘fair’ wages and are not exploited. However, the negative impact of minimum wage on firm’s margin profitability has lead employers to make adjustments to the workers’ fringe benefits. Consequently, challenges faced by employers and their response to workers’ fringe benefits become an important research topic. Data were gathered from interviews with six employers in electrical and electronics firms. The main findings require employers to adopt logistical and wage scale adjustments. The results also show that minimum wages do not adversely impact the rate of workers’ allowances. However, there are changes to the percentage of insurance coverage. These findings provide an additional view on the issue of minimum wages and should facilitate in the drafting of better wage strategies in future. Keywords: minimum wage, training, fringe benefit, Malaysia. View

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