Dr Reiko Journals

Welcome to Reiko Journals

REIKO JOURNALS is an offspring of the REIKO CENTER FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH AND DEVEVELOPMENT. Its membership comprises of African and American Scholars in various Universities. The center decries the prevalent and perennial poverty and under-development in the sub-Saharan African countries and in the entire third world and designs a vision to provide intellectual potentials development opportunities to strengthen the micro and macroeconomic institutions in such countries....

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The Editorial Board of Reiko International Journal of Humanities (RIJH) accepts articles from the Faculties of Humanities across the globe. Such articles should be modeled to cover academic disciplines like Music, cultural Studies, demography, Philosophy, environmental Studies, ethnography, geography, history, mass communication, political science Sociology and linguistics. For an article to be accepted for publication in the journal, such article must be in the form of original manuscript which addresses Social Science or Cultural issues from either interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary point of view and such issue or issues must elicit veritable insight and promote understanding of various problems confronting the contemporary society of its focus.

ISSN

2281–1822

IMPACT FACTOR: 5.44

Frequency of Publication:
4 Issues Per Year (Quarterly)
1 Title: LINGUISTIC FEATURES THAT MARK COHESION IN SELECTED GIKUYU TEXTS
Author: ANNE WACHERA SOMBA & ANTONY SOMBA MANG’OKA
Abstract: Abstract The present study was aimed at identifying and describing elements that help to join different sentences in selected Gîkûyû texts. This study falls in the broad area of discourse analysis. The texts selected for this study were those written in continuous prose and were from the literary and the reportage text categories. The work followed the Halliday and Hasan’s model of Cohesion to identify and describe cohesive devices in these texts. Gǐkǔyǔ texts analysed showed evidence of cohesion as proposed in the Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) model of cohesion. The paper describes affixes, words, phrases, clauses and syntactic gaps that have been identified as creating cohesion in Gîkûyû texts. The paper explains how these linguistic features that create cohesion relate with other parts of the texts being analyzed to realize cohesion. Yule (1985) argues that cohesion is marked differently in different languages. He further observes that these differences pose difficulties when texts are being translated from one language to another. Theory governed descriptions of cohesive relations in different languages would provide valuable insights to translators. By describing cohesion in Gîkûyû, the present study adds to the body of knowledge on Gîkûyû, and language in general. Keywords: Cohesion, Gikuyu, Features, Linguistic, Texts. ... more
2 Title: BORDER MANAGEMENT OF CYBERSPACE, FIRST STEP OF CYBER DEFENSE
Author: JANPARVAR, MOHSEN GHASRI, MOHAMMAD & HOSSEINPOUR MOTLAGH, MAHDI
Abstract: Abstract Ability to alter according to progress in political, social, technological in society and world is the secret of survival of government. This rule coordinates with "gradual" rule or principle (evolution) of live phenomenon. In the meantime, forming development and progress of information technology and communication transformed human life in different communities and has been made environment as "cyberspace". With forming this space, capacity and high positive and negative potential has been available for users. Here, negative potentials that make challenge, damage and insecurity in society is important. This negative potential is such vandalism and damage through this space that can include worldwide instantly and abuse of computer technologies and internet can endanger national security, public peace and existence of society and impose a lot of negative effects on individual and social life and even existence of country. So, governments react in different way to reaction and defense cyber to challenges and insecurities of cyber space in security and inside space. In this way border management of cyber space is the first step in cyber defense and prominent and important role in controlling and preventing the challenges that come from cyberspace to real space of country. So, this article tries to investigate the position of cyberspace border on cyber defense for the first time according political geography approach and theatrical and analytical studies. Keywords: cyberspace, border, cyber defense. ... more
3 Title: THE EXTENT OF THE APPLICATION OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN THE JORDAN TO THE STANDARD PROTOCOL Z39.50
Author: OMAR MOHAMMAD AL-JARADAT PhD. & FATEMA AHMAD AL-SAMRAIE PhD.
Abstract: Abstract Despite the great importance of a (Z39.50) Protocol in any mechanical system because of its serious benefits for libraries and information, however, there are limitations in using this Protocol in Jordanian universities libraries. Therefore the study dealt with protocol (Z39.50) practically and theoretically to benefit from it in Jordanian libraries through applying it at the Jordanian University Libraries represented by (Yarmouk University Library and the library of the University of Science and technology Irbid), and how to use and benefit from the mechanism applied in foreign libraries compared to the application in studied Jordanian libraries. The study consisted of (30) staff (60) officer in the sections of the studied university libraries (indexing and categorization, provisioning, periodicals, databases), formed (50%) of the chosen randomly sample study. Data collection adopted two methods: first: written interview questions, composed of (15) question. Second: asked questions questionnaire, consisting of (17) question, and after analyzing it, it showed that (84%) of workers were assisted by the protocol in doing their works, and it has a great role in information retrieval and search and retrieval of bibliographic records, while the system using the protocol in Jordanian universities only use (Horizon) system, also it was found that the Protocol does not provide collaborative interlibrary loan service between libraries. Search recommended that training courses must be done for library professionals to familiarize them with the Protocol and services so they can use it optimally, and the utilization of the possibilities provided by protocol must be expanded throughout the libraries. Keywords: libraries, Application, Protocol, Government University ... more
4 Title: THE EMERGENT NEW MAN IN NGUGI WA THIONG’O’S A GRAIN OF WHEAT AND FESTUS IYAYI’S VIOLENCE
Author: IBIENE EVELYN IBOROMA (PhD)
Abstract: Abstract The artistic vision of some contemporary African writers both male and female centers on creating the new African woman. A lot of critical works also dwell on the emergence of the new woman. This paper explores the emergence of the new African man which has scarcely been done. Using Rose Acholonu’s accommodationist concept of love as the framework, the paper dramatizes how husbands demonstrate accommodationist love towards their wives who fall into adultery. The paper concludes by applauding Ngugi and Iyayi for celebrating the new African man who rises above male arrogance in his engagement with conjugal infidelity. The study recommends that husbands and wives should keep their marriage vows, and that on no account should excuses be given to the sin of adultery or any other sin. ... more
5 Title: THE PROBLEM OF INVARIABILITY OF PROVERBS OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE
Author: GEORGE CAMBELL PhD. & LELA KAMADADZE
Abstract: Abstract The article deals with the compatibility of Georgian proverb in logical-semiotic classification system and generally the problem of proverbs invariability. In logical-semiotic classification of invariable groups (4 groups), given in specific literature, Georgian proverbs are more or less compatible. Supposedly, the study of proverbs of different people will lead researchers to the same outcome due to the fact that, proverbs are universal sayings; the social-historical conditions of different people are similar as well. Furthermore, outer world is somewhat international. These facts determine similarities of proverbial views of different people on above stated problems. We should look for the difference in the form of depiction, as the structures of languages, thinking standards on nations differ as well, leading to reflecting of the same event in a diverse way through the proverbs of different ethnic group. Herewith, It is considerable, that the research of paremias from logical-semiotic point of view will show different people’s similar and different views about all category of vital philosophy as well specific cultural-national worldview. Keywords: proverb, invariability, ethnos, situation, world. ... more
6 Title: AESTHETIC CONSTRUCTION OF DESIRABLE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION – A STUDY OF GUSII CHILDREN’S SONG TEXTS
Author: NYAMBANE FREDRICK MONANTI NELLY MASAYI & MINYIKHA LILIAN MUSOTSI
Abstract: Abstract Happenings of juvenile delinquency are dreadfully high. Secularization; a process by which religious ideas, institutions and interpretations have lost their social significance has taken centre stage in human interactions. The horrendous result is that shame and decorum have been jettisoned from the conscience of our youthful generations. Consequently, statistics of children in juvenile prisons and rehabilitation centres round the globe are appallingly high. These incidents of delinquency among the youths have impacted negatively in the provision of education and related opportunities in many parts of the globe. Efforts through programmes such as guidance and counseling and sporting have been put in place to try and ameliorate this situation but with little success. At the same time, losses of biodiversity are undeniably occurring in many parts of the globe, often at a rapid pace. The losses occur through extinctions caused by the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitat, pollution, over-exploitation, introduction of exotic species and monocultural activities. Saving the remaining world’s biodiversity has become an important public policy issue in the international, regional, and national levels. It is widely recognized that if the remaining biodiversity is allowed to disappear, man’s future will be at stake (Alcamo et al., 2003). This is because biodiversity, especially biological resources form a basis for global as well as national economic and ecological security. The intent of this study was therefore to explore the possibility of the contribution of children’s oral poetry in moulding acceptable personality traits in children in terms enhancing human relations and conservation of biodiversity. The study limited its scope to analyzing four children’s oral texts purposively sampled from the Gusii community in Kenya. Deconstruction theory was used in determining the meanings constructed and conveyed by the oral texts and the contribution of the adduced discourses towards enriching lives and biodiversity. Given that art is a discourse and a form of ideological state apparatuses which “hails” its subjects towards subscribing to a specific worldview, deconstruction theory was thus augmented by Louis Althusser’s ISA strand of Marxist literary theory to demonstrate that discourses in children’s oral texts can construct for children personality traits that are largely acceptable and beneficial to their societies and the globe as a unit. At the conclusion, a psychoanalysis strand is used to tie up the discussion. The study thus demonstrates that oral poetry is an effective vehicle in personality formation among children. The significance of this study is that its findings contribute to the already existing efforts of training children to be better people in future as well as reawaken efforts of related studies aimed at reducing the numbers of children with mangled personalities. Key words: Aesthetic, Children’s oral poetry, Acceptable Personality, construction, Juvenile delinquency, and Deconstruction. ... more
7 Title: LANGUAGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN KENYA
Author: LONYANGAPUO K. MARY
Abstract: Abstract Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy. Currently, it contributes 25%1 of Kenya’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Given its relevance, deliberate effort needs to be made to ensure that there is proper investment into this sector; and as this happens, attention should also be given to the issue of language. Currently, not much focus is given to language as an important element in the development of agriculture. This is a contradiction because language plays a central role through its communicative function, without which agricultural involvement cannot take place. This paper investigates the role of language in the development of agriculture in Kenya. The study is based on the premise that communication is key in the agricultural sector mainly because the language that is used to communicate and how the communication is done determine its success. This is an applied theoretical study that delves into the interface between linguistics and agriculture, hence, its interdisciplinary approach. The study was carried out in Uasin Gishu and Trans-nzoia counties in Rift Valley province, Kenya; where a total of 93 respondents were involved. Data was collected using questionnaires and analysis done through categorization and description. Findings show that in many instances, there is breakdown of communication that arises from the inability of the professionals to communicate the acquired knowledge in a language that is understood by the lay public. The study recommends an interdisciplinary approach in the training of graduates in the field of agriculture. This will enable them acquire skills that make them optimally prepared to serve as professionals in their area of specialization. If done, it will reduce inaccessibility to relevant information that has adverse consequences to the economic development of the nation. Keywords: Agriculture, language, communication, development, Kenya ... more
8 Title: ASSESSING THE CONTRIBUTION OF INFLOW OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) IN THE CREATION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES TO THE PEOPLE IN ZANZIBAR: A CASE OF TOURISM SECTOR
Author: OGHENEKARO DAVIES, F. & ZULFA NGUDE
Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study is assessing the contribution of inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the creation of employment opportunities to the people in Zanzibar: Tourism sector being a case study. The methods used in the study was descriptive case study design, where by questionnaires were distributed to the 50 respondents, among them were people at Nungwi village, officials from Zanzibar Investment Promotion Agency (ZIPA) and managers from hotels in Zanzibar, also documentation and observation methods were used in the collection of data. The results show that 62% were benefited being employed in the tourism sector and their income have up for 60%, whereby before employment their income were lower for 80%. The report concludes that FDI inflow especially in the tourism sector has brought much positive impact in the creation of employment opportunities to the people in Zanzibar. In that case it is recommended that Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar should improve and promote policies guiding tourism sector investment in the country so as fully provide more employment opportunities and improve the countries’ economic development for the purposes of poverty reduction. ... more